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The current study advanced research on the link between community violence exposure and aggression by comparing the effects of violence exposure on different functions of aggression and by testing four potential (i.e., callous–unemotional traits, consideration of others, impulse control, and anxiety) mediators of this relationship. Analyses were conducted in an ethnically/racially diverse sample of 1,216 male first-time juvenile offenders (M = 15.30 years, SD = 1.29). Our results indicated that violence exposure had direct effects on both proactive and reactive aggression 18 months later. The predictive link of violence exposure to proactive aggression was no longer significant after controlling for proactive aggression at baseline and the overlap with reactive aggression. In contrast, violence exposure predicted later reactive aggression even after controlling for baseline reactive aggression and the overlap with proactive aggression. Mediation analyses of the association between violence exposure and reactive aggression indicated indirect effects through all potential mediators, but the strongest indirect effect was through impulse control. The findings help to advance knowledge on the consequences of community violence exposure on justice-involved youth.
To investigate discrepancies in dose calculation algorithms used for lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) plans.
Methods and materials
In total, 30 patients lung SBRT treatment plans, initially generated using BrainLab Pencil Beam (BL_PB) algorithm for 10 Gy×5 Fractions to the planning target volume (PTV) were included in the study. These plans were recalculated using BrainLab Monte Carlo (BL_MC), Eclipse AAA (EC_AAA), Eclipse Acuros XB (EC_AXB) and ADAC Pinnacle CCC (AP_CCC) algorithms. Dose volume histograms of PTV were used to calculate dosimetric and radiobiological quality indices, and equivalent dose to 2 Gy per fraction using linear-quadratic-linear model. The BL_MC algorithm is considered gold standard tool to compare PTV parameters and quality indices to investigate dose calculation discrepancies of abovementioned plans.
BL_PB overestimates doses that may be due to inability of the algorithm to properly account for electron scattering and transport in inhomogeneous medium. Compared with BL_MCNO plans, the EC_AAA and EC_AXB yield lower homogeneity indices and overestimate the dose in the penumbra region, whereas AP_CCC plans were comparable for small PTV (≈8 cc) and had significant difference for large PTV.
BL_PB algorithm overestimates PTV doses than BL_MC calculated doses. The EC_AAA, EC_AXB and AP_CCC algorithms calculate doses within acceptable limits of radiotherapy dose delivery recommendations.
Supernova (SN) 1987A has provided a unique opportunity to study how SN ejecta evolve in 30 years time scale. We report our ALMA spectral observations of SN 1987A, taken in 2014, 2015 and 2016, with detections of CO, 28SiO, HCO+ and SO, with weaker lines of 29SiO.
We find a dip in the SiO line profiles, suggesting that the ejecta morphology is likely elongated. The difference of the CO and SiO line profiles is consistent with hydrodynamic simulations, which show that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities causes mixing of gas, with heavier elements much more disturbed, making more elongated structure.
Using 28SiO and its isotopologues, Si isotope ratios were estimated for the first time in SN 1987A. The estimated ratios appear to be consistent with theoretical predictions of inefficient formation of neutron rich atoms at lower metallicity, such as observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud (about half a solar metallicity).
The deduced large HCO+ mass and small SiS mass, which are inconsistent to the predictions of chemical model, might be explained by some mixing of elements immediately after the explosion. The mixing might have made some hydrogen from the envelope to sink into carbon and oxygen-rich zone during early days after the explosion, enabling the formation of a substantial mass of HCO+. Oxygen atoms may penetrate into silicon and sulphur zone, suppressing formation of SiS.
Our ALMA observations open up a new window to investigate chemistry, dynamics and explosive-nucleosynthesis in supernovae.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an emerging zoonotic disease in India which is prevalent in neighbouring countries. CCHF virus (CCHFV) is a widespread tick-borne virus which is endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East. In the present study, samples of clinically suspected human cases from different areas of northern-western India were tested for the presence of CCHFV by RT–PCR through amplification of nucleocapsid (N) gene of CCHFV. Positive samples were sequenced to reveal the prevailing CCHFV genotype(s) and phylogenetic relatedness. A phylogenetic tree revealed the emergence of diverse strains in the study region showing maximum identity with the Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran strains, which was different from earlier reported Indian strains. Our findings reveal for the first time the emergence of the Asia 1 group in India; while earlier reported CCHFV strains belong to the Asia 2 group.
This study evaluated dosimetric parameters for cervical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment using varying dose prescription methods.
This study includes 125 tandem-based cervical HDR brachytherapy treatment plans of 25 patients who received HDR brachytherapy. Delineation of high-risk clinical target volumes (HR-CTVs) and organ at risk were done on original computed tomographic images. The dose prescription point was defined as per International Commission in Radiation Units and Measurements Report Number 38 (ICRU-38), also redefined using American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) 2011 criteria. The coverage index (V100) for each HR-CTV was calculated using dose volume histogram parameters. A plot between HR-CTV and V100 was plotted using the best-fit linear regression line (least-square fit analysis).
Mean prescribed dose to ICRU-38 Point A was 590·47±28·65 cGy, and to ABS Point A was 593·35±30·42 cGy. There was no statistically significant difference between planned ICRU-38 and calculated ABS Point A doses (p=0·23). The plot between HR-CTV and V100 is well defined by the best-fit linear regression line with a correlation coefficient of 0·9519.
For cervical HDR brachytherapy, dose prescription to an arbitrarily defined point (e.g., Point A) does not provide consistent coverage of HR-CTV. The difference in coverage between two dose prescription approaches increases with increasing CTV. Our ongoing work evaluates the dosimetric consequences of volumetric dose prescription approaches for these patients.
This paper describes the Raman and infrared spectroscopy of SrSO4 or celestine from the Muschelkalk of Winterswijk, The Netherlands. The infrared absorption spectrum is characterised by the SO42-modes V1 at 991 cm-1, v3 at 1201, 1138 and 1091 cm-1, and v4 at 643 and 611 cm-1. An unidentified band is observed at 1248 cm-1. In the Raman spectrum at 293 K the V1 mode is found at 1000 cm-1 and is split in two bands at 1001 and 1003 cm-1 upon cooling to 77 K.The v2 mode, not observed in the infrared spectrum, is observed as a doublet at 460 and 453 cm-1. The v3 mode is represented by four bands in the Raman spectrum at 1187, 1158, 1110 and 1093 cm-1 and the v4 mode as three bands at 656, 638 and 620 cm-1. Cooling to 77 K results in a general decrease in bandwidth and a minor shift in frequencies. A decrease in intensities is observed upon cooling to 77 K due to movement of the Sr atom towards one or more of the oxygen atoms in the sulfate group.
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause bacteraemia, meningitis, and complications during pregnancy. In July 2012, molecular subtyping identified indistinguishable L. monocytogenes isolates from six patients and two samples of different cut and repackaged cheeses. A multistate outbreak investigation was initiated. Initial analyses identified an association between eating soft cheese and outbreak-related illness (odds ratio 17·3, 95% confidence interval 2·0–825·7) but no common brand. Cheese inventory data from locations where patients bought cheese and an additional location where repackaged cheese yielded the outbreak strain were compared to identify cheeses for microbiological sampling. Intact packages of imported ricotta salata yielded the outbreak strain. Fourteen jurisdictions reported 22 cases from March–October 2012, including four deaths and a fetal loss. Six patients ultimately reported eating ricotta salata; another reported eating cheese likely cut with equipment also used for contaminated ricotta salata, and nine more reported eating other cheeses that might also have been cross-contaminated. An FDA import alert and US and international recalls followed. Epidemiology-directed microbiological testing of suspect cheeses helped identify the outbreak source. Cross-contamination of cheese highlights the importance of using validated disinfectant protocols and routine cleaning and sanitizing after cutting each block or wheel.
We present a novel motorized semi-autonomous mobile hospital bed guided by a human operator and a reactive navigation algorithm. The proposed reactive navigation algorithm is launched when the sensory device detects that the hospital bed is in the potential danger of collision. The semi-autonomous hospital bed is able to safely and quickly deliver critical neurosurgery (head trauma) patients to target locations in dynamic uncertain hospital environments such as crowded hospital corridors while avoiding en-route steady and moving obstacles. We do not restrict the nature or the motion of the obstacles, meaning that the shapes of the obstacles may be time-varying or deforming and they may undergo arbitrary motions. The only information available to the navigation system is the current distance to the nearest obstacle. Performance of the proposed navigation algorithm is verified via theoretical studies. Simulation and experimental results also confirm the performance of the reactive navigation algorithm in real world scenarios.
This study aimed to assess and compare the epidemiology of faecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) in Hepatology departments of two hospitals specializing in liver diseases, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) in Cairo (Egypt) and Beaujon Hospital (Bj) in Clichy (France). CTX-M groups were identified by PCR, and TEM and SHV derivatives with the check-point system. Phylogenetic groups of E. coli were determined by multiplex PCR, and clone ST131 by PCR of gene pabB. Prevalence of ESBL-E was 77·6% (45/58) in TBRI and 6·5% (13/199) in Bj (P < 10−7). Previous hospitalization was more common (P = 0·003) in Bj patients (93%) than in TBRI patients (45%) suggesting high prevalence of ESBL-E in the Egyptian community. The presence of E. coli B2 ST131 among ESBL-E faecal E. coli in Egypt confirms its pervasiveness in the community and raises concern regarding this highly virulent and resistant clone.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
SN 2001ja was observed twice in three months using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The X-ray flux could be due to interaction with the circumstellar medium, perhaps dominated by the reverse shock heated thermal plasma, or from inverse Compton scattering at the forward shock. In both cases, for a steady wind-like circumstellar density profile, the X-ray flux is expected to fall off as a power law or faster. But the flux from the position of SN 2011ja, increased by a factor of three between these observations. In this presentation, we investigated possible reasons, including contamination from other astrophysical sources such as a X-Ray Binary, within the Chandra's resolution, in the host galaxy using our observations, modelling and pre-explosion Chandra/XMM data.
Since its introduction in early 1990s, bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic solar cell (BHJ-OPV) has promised high-efficiency at ultra-low cost and weight, with potential for non-traditional applications such as building-integrated PV. There is a widespread presumption, however, that the complexity of morphology makes carrier transport in OPV irreducibly complicated, and possibly, beyond predictive modeling. In this paper, we use elementary and intuitive arguments to derive the fundamental thermodynamic as well as morphology-specific practical limits of BHJ-OPV efficiency. We find that constraints of the percolation threshold and trade-off among short-circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor make substantial improvement in OPV efficiency difficult. We posit that future improvement in OPV will rely not on morphology engineering, or reducing the polymer bandgap, but on increasing both the effective μ × τ product and the cross-gap between donor/acceptors. Even if the OPV fails to achieve the highest efficiency anticipated by the thermodynamic limit, its novel form factor, lightweight, and transparency can make it a commercially viable option for many applications.
Independent outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV) infection and sporadic cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been recorded in the metropolitan city of Delhi on several occasions in the past. However, during a recent 2010 arboviral outbreak in Delhi many cases turned negative for DENV. This prompted us to use duplex reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (D-RT–PCR) to establish the aetiology of dengue/chikungunya through sequencing of CprM and E1 genes of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Interestingly, for the first time, both DENV and CHIKV co-circulated simultaneously and in equally dominant proportion during the post-monsoon period of 2010. DENV-1 genotype III and the East Central South African genotype of CHIKV were associated with post-monsoon spread of these viruses.
Calcium phosphates form a vast family of biominerals, which have attracted much attention in fields like biology, medicine, and materials science, to name a few. Solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is one of the few techniques capable of providing information about their structure at the atomic level. Here, examples of recent advances of solid state NMR techniques are given to demonstrate their suitability to characterize in detail synthetic and biological calcium phosphates. Examples of high-resolution 31P, 1H (and 17O), solid state NMR experiments of a 17O-enriched monocalcium phosphate monohydrate-monetite mixture and of a mouse tooth are presented. In both cases, the advantage of performing fast Magic Angle Spinning NMR experiments at high magnetic fields is emphasized, notably because it allows very small volumes of sample to be analyzed.
The upper Wenlock Series (Homerian Stage) of the northern Midland Platform, England, contains numerous volcanic bentonite clay layers. At Wren's Nest Hill, Dudley, 15 bentonites have been investigated and comparisons with the type-Wenlock have been made by means of two key sections along Wenlock Edge, Shropshire. In total 22 bentonites have been investigated and their clay and sand-grade mineralogies determined. Rare earth element (REE) and yttrium concentrations of apatite grains contained within ten of the bentonites have been established allowing geochemical fingerprinting as an indication of provenance of source magmas and identification of geochemical marker beds. Based on the analysis of REE and yttrium concentrations it seems likely that the majority of these bentonites originated from a granodiorite magmatic source. Comparisons with published Llandovery and lower Wenlock age bentonites indicate generally more enrichment in light REEs relative to heavy REEs. In addition, close geochemical similarities between bentonites along Wenlock Edge and at Wren's Nest Hill strongly argue for their presence as precise stratigraphic equivalents within the upper Much Wenlock Limestone Formation. These correlations are further supported by geophysical data from borehole wire-line logs across the West Midlands. Finally, a chemically distinct mid-Homerian episode of volcanism is identified and represents a potentially important marker interval between the study area and other similarly aged bentonites reported from the Island of Gotland, Sweden.
MEMS community is increasingly using SU-8 as a structural material because it is self-patternable, compliant and needs a low thermal budget. While the exposed layers act as the structural layers, the unexposed SU-8 layers can act as the sacrificial layers, thus making it similar to a surface micromachining process. A sequence of exposed and unexposed SU-8 layers should lead to the development of a SU-8 based MEMS chip integrated with a pre-processed CMOS wafer. A process consisting of optical lithography to obtain SU-8 structures on a CMOS wafer is described in this paper.
SU-8 is being increasingly used as a compliant structural material for MEMS applications due to its interesting properties such as lower Young’s modulus and higher mechanical and thermal stability. One of the popular classes of MEMS devices is a piezoresitive microcantilever. Ultra-sensitive polymer composite cantilevers made up of SU-8 as a structural layer and 10% carbon Black in SU8 as a piezoresistive layer with lower Young’s modulus and higher gauge factor have been reported recently by our group. Higher electrical conductivity at lower concentration of conductive filler is of increased interest. Here we report a novel composite with purified multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNT) in SU8 as a piezoresistor. MWNT were modified with octadecyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide (OTPB) in order to achieve debundled MWNT. A microcantilever device with integrated MWNT/SU-8 composite has been fabricated and characterized.
While the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown, evidence suggests certain environmental factors, such as well water drinking, herbicides, pesticides exposure and neurotoxins, may trigger the chain of oxidative reactions culminating in the death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra to cause Parkinsonism. To investigate the possible impact of environmental risk factors for idiopathic PD, a case-control study was performed in the Eastern India.
During the period from January 1st, 2006 and December 10th, 2009, 175 PD patients (140 men, 35 women) and 350 non-Parkinson age-sex matched controls were included in the study. Subjects were given a structured neurological examination and completed an administered questionnaire which elicited detailed information on demographic data, pesticides, herbicides family history, occupation, dietary and smoking habits.
The multivariate analysis revealed that family history of PD, pesticide exposure, exposure to toxins other than pesticides and herbicides, rural living and previous history of depression were associated with increased risk of PD, whereas, smoking appeared to be a protective factor. Well water drinking for at least five years, though a significant risk factor on univariate analysis (OR=4.5, 95% CI=2.1-9.9), could not be proved significant in multivariate analysis. Head trauma, vegetarian dietary habit, occupation involving physical exertion and exposure to domestic pets were not as significant risk factors.
Results of our study support the hypothesis of multifactorial etiology of PD with environmental factors acting on a genetically susceptible host.