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It is known that 12C beam transmission through the accelerator decreases at high beam currents. This effect depends on machine design and varies across different types of AMS instruments. For beam currents of about 100 μA, the effect is small on the 500 kV tandem CAMS unit, whereas beam saturation is observed for similar high beam currents on the 250 kV SSAMS unit. While this effect is very evident for high 12C beam currents, we have also observed that even the 13C beam is found to suffer modest transmission loss with beam current. As a result, the 13C/12C ratio does not remain constant with beam current. By correcting for the effects of 12C beam saturation and decreased 13C transmission, we have obtained online δ13C values that are more accurate and precise at moderately high beam currents for SSAMS.
The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820–851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.
The class of radio transients called Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) encompasses enigmatic single pulses, each unique in its own way, hindering a consensus for their origin. The key to demystifying FRBs lies in discovering many of them in order to identity commonalities – and in real time, in order to find potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The recently upgraded UTMOST in Australia, is undergoing a backend transformation to rise as a fast transient detection machine. The first interferometric detections of FRBs with UTMOST, place their origin beyond the near-field region of the telescope thus ruling out local sources of interference as a possible origin. We have localised these bursts to much better than the ones discovered at the Parkes radio telescope and have plans to upgrade UTMOST to be capable of much better localisation still.
We computationally investigate coupling of a nonlinear rotational dissipative element to a sprung circular cylinder allowed to undergo transverse vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in an incompressible flow. The dissipative element is a ‘nonlinear energy sink’ (NES), consisting of a mass rotating at fixed radius about the cylinder axis and a linear viscous damper that dissipates energy from the motion of the rotating mass. We consider the Reynolds number range
$20\leqslant Re\leqslant 120$
based on cylinder diameter and free-stream velocity, and the cylinder restricted to rectilinear motion transverse to the mean flow. Interaction of this NES with the flow is mediated by the cylinder, whose rectilinear motion is mechanically linked to rotational motion of the NES mass through nonlinear inertial coupling. The rotational NES provides significant ‘passive’ suppression of VIV. Beyond suppression however, the rotational NES gives rise to a range of qualitatively new behaviours not found in transverse VIV of a sprung cylinder without an NES, or one with a ‘rectilinear NES’, considered previously. Specifically, the NES can either stabilize or destabilize the steady, symmetric, motionless-cylinder solution and can induce conditions under which suppression of VIV (and concomitant reduction in lift and drag) is accompanied by a greatly elongated region of attached vorticity in the wake, as well as conditions in which the cylinder motion and flow are temporally chaotic at relatively low
Radiocarbon was measured in the surface seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the Bay of Bengal during November 2006. A meridional transect of the Δ14C in DIC was obtained from measurements in closely spaced samples collected roughly along 88°E. The Δ14C of these samples ranged from 44‰ to 57.7‰ (mean 51.8 ± 1.1‰, n = 12), and 38‰ at one station in the northern Bay of Bengal. The overall pattern of 14C distribution in DIC of surface Bay of Bengal during 2006 was roughly similar to that during the WOCE expedition of 1995. These results indicate a Δ14C decline rate of ∼4‰ per decade since WOCE in the surface Bay of Bengal, which is much smaller compared to a decline rate of ∼25‰ per decade observed in the 2 decades between the GEOSECS and WOCE expeditions, due to the smaller atmosphere-ocean Δ14C gradient.
Safflower is a traditional oilseed crop in the world. Its seed oil is a healthy edible oil containing high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Genetically diverse exotic cultivars are valuable germplasm for introducing new diversity in safflower improvement programmes. In this study, we characterized safflower cultivars of India (30) and Mexico (23) comprising varieties, hybrids and advanced lines developed over 50 years for genetic distinctiveness using 38 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Genetic diversity estimates across cultivar groups (total, India and Mexico) were as follows: mean number of alleles (3.2, 3.1, 2.6), expected heterozygosity (0.42, 0.37, 0.37) and polymorphism information content (0.36, 0.33, 0.32) respectively, which suggested narrow SSR allelic diversity within and between cultivar groups. However, distance-based cluster analysis (neighbour-joining tree) and model-based STRUCTURE analysis revealed that safflower cultivars of India and Mexico, with the exception of a few, form two genetically distinct groups. High level of genetic variation explained between the populations (40%) and Fst estimate (0.4) suggested that the cultivar groups were highly differentiated with limited gene flow supporting a strong genetic structuring. High oil (~38%) and high oleic (73–79%) contents of a subset of Mexican safflower varieties and advanced lines were confirmed in field trials in India. These exotic sources from Mexico are valuable for safflower breeding programmes in India to develop new cultivars with high oil yielding potential and high oleic acid content, which is the current market demand.
A new 250kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia. The accelerator is intended to be used primarily for radiocarbon measurements of natural and biobased samples, while all other samples such as marine, geological, atmospheric and archaeological samples are measured on the decade-old 500kV compact tandem accelerator (CAMS). The new AMS system is equipped with a 134-cathode MC-SNICS ion source. In this article, we show the results of the tests carried out on standards and blanks and compare the performance of the new machine with that of the CAMS unit. We have also compared the stable isotope data from AMS measurements to the conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) data.
Radiocarbon and stable isotope determination in foods, flavors, and beverages, for the authentication of source material and process of formation, is a well-established method of identity used in industry. New methods of provenance determination, using stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, have added to the host of other isotopic methods used for characterizing natural or botanically derived products. The unambiguous determinant of a product's fossil fuel origin be it from petroleum, natural gas, or coal, is through the measurement of its 14C content. The 14C content can also be used to determine the fraction dilution of recently grown and harvested material with that derived from fossil fuel, and even confirms the vintage of agricultural products based on the well-established decrease of bomb-produced atmospheric 14C. This paper documents 14C measurements at the University of Georgia's Center for Applied Isotope Studies accelerator mass spectrometry and stable isotope laboratories, over the last 3 yr, for 10 important flavoring compounds. By establishing an accurate and current level of 14C in botanically derived products, we were able to confirm a particular source for vanilla production, the most popular consumer flavor in the marketplace. Over the years, vanilla extract has been produced less and less from vanilla beans (Vanilla planifolia), particularly those from Madagascar and the Comoros Islands, and more from other botanical precursors such as ferulic acid, clove oil, and guaiacol. We report isotopic data to support this precursor for vanilla production based on high 14C levels accumulated during the tree's life, incorporated in the tree rings and their associated stable isotope abundances.
Atomic force microscopy is employed to study the structural changes in the morphology and physical characteristics of asphaltene aggregates as a function of temperature. The exotic fractal structure obtained by evaporation-driven asphaltene aggregates shows an interesting dynamics for a large range of temperatures from 25°C to 80°C. The changes in the topography, surface potential and adhesion are unnoticeable until 70°C. However, a significant change in the dynamics and material properties is displayed in the range of 70°C - 80°C, during which the aspahltene aggregates acquire ‘liquid-like’ mobility and fuse together. This behaviour is attributed to the transition from the pure amorphous phase to a crystalline liquid phase which occurs at approximately 70°C as shown by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, the charged nature of asphaltenes and bitumen is also explored using kelvin probe microscopy. Such observations can lead to the development of a rational approach to the fundamental understanding of asphaltene aggregation dynamics and may help in devising novel techniques for the handling and separation of asphaltene aggregates using dielectrophoretic methods.
A special class of polymer called dendrons which are repeatedly branched polymers linked together by a network of cascade branched monomers. A composite of these dendritic polymers with linear polymers may have unique physical and chemical properties. Using contact resonance mode of atomic force microscopy we are able to detect the viscoelastic properties of the dendritic formation of the polyethylene oxide (PEO) mixed with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). PEO is known to form nanometric crystallites due to the diffusion limited aggregation process. However, the dendritic formation in the mixture has not been reported before. The amplitude and phase of the contact resonance shows a clear dendritic growth of PEO in the composite material. The extent of the polymer crystallization can be several nanometers thick within the composite material. Additionally, the intrinsic properties of such polymers to form denrimers can be explored for fabricating polymer composites having numerous potential applications in chemical sensing, drug-delivery, energy applications and many more.
Crystalline silicon based photovoltaics continues to be the dominant technology for large scale deployment of solar energy. While impressive cost gains in silicon based PV have come with scale, there remains a strong push for increased efficiencies and further lowering of manufacturing costs to achieve true grid parity. So far, however, there has not been a production proven approach that reduces the cost while maintaining or increasing the efficiency. Attempts to reduce the amount of silicon used, for example, have led to development of various kerfless wafer manufacturing approaches. While some of these approaches have shown the potential for reduced costs, they also compromise the efficiency mainly due to the inferior quality of the material.
Epitaxy based kerfless silicon wafers, on the other hand, has shown the potential to reverse this trend offering lower manufacturing costs while maintaining or even enhancing the efficiency due to the high quality of the n-type and p-type silicon epitaxial (Epi) wafers. In this work, we present key aspects of Crystal Solar’s patented high throughput production silicon epitaxial reactor and its use in the manufacture of standard thickness N and P wafers. Besides the advantage of having significantly reduced cost, these Epi wafers have high quality, better mechanical strength and resistance to light inducted degradation due to significantly reduced oxygen content.
A low thermal budget process for back-end compatible PCMO based RRAM cell is essential for 3D stacked memory. In this paper, we investigate two strategies to engineer low thermal budget processing for bipolar switching - (i) deposition engineering i.e. based on deposition temperature and oxygen partial pressure, (ii) post deposition anneal i.e. based on inert anneal of room temperature deposited PCMO film.. We demonstrate that both deposition and anneal shows a transition temperature above which bipolar switching is realized. Oxygen partial pressure is a key deposition process parameter. As oxygen partial pressure is reduced memory window increases, however beyond an optimal O2 partial pressure, unipolar switching is observed. Inert anneal is more effective in thermal budget reduction as N2/550°C/2min anneal has same memory performance as 650°C/2hour deposition process.
A ‘pulsar timing array’ (PTA), in which observations of a large sample of pulsars spread across the celestial sphere are combined, allows investigation of ‘global’ phenomena such as a background of gravitational waves or instabilities in atomic timescales that produce correlated timing residuals in the pulsars of the array. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) is an implementation of the PTA concept based on observations with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. A sample of 20 ms pulsars is being observed at three radio-frequency bands, 50 cm (~700 MHz), 20 cm (~1400 MHz), and 10 cm (~3100 MHz), with observations at intervals of two to three weeks. Regular observations commenced in early 2005. This paper describes the systems used for the PPTA observations and data processing, including calibration and timing analysis. The strategy behind the choice of pulsars, observing parameters, and analysis methods is discussed. Results are presented for PPTA data in the three bands taken between 2005 March and 2011 March. For 10 of the 20 pulsars, rms timing residuals are less than 1 μs for the best band after fitting for pulse frequency and its first time derivative. Significant ‘red’ timing noise is detected in about half of the sample. We discuss the implications of these results on future projects including the International Pulsar Timing Array and a PTA based on the Square Kilometre Array. We also present an ‘extended PPTA’ data set that combines PPTA data with earlier Parkes timing data for these pulsars.
In this paper we advocate the study of discrete models of social dynamics under adversarial scheduling. The approach we propose forms part of a foundational basis for a generative approach to social science (Epstein 2007). We highlight the feasibility of the adversarial scheduling approach by using it to study the Prisoners's Dilemma Game with Pavlov update, a dynamics that has already been investigated under random update in Kittock (1994), Dyer et al. (2002), Mossel and Roch (2006) and Dyer and Velumailum (2011). The model is specified by letting players at the nodes of an underlying graph G repeatedly play the Prisoner's Dilemma against their neighbours. The players adapt their strategies based on the past behaviour of their opponents by applying the so-called win–stay lose–shift strategy. With random scheduling, starting from any initial configuration, the system reaches the fixed point in which all players cooperate with high probability. On the other hand, under adversarial scheduling the following results hold:
—A scheduler that can select both game participants can preclude the system from reaching the unique fixed point on most graph topologies.
—A non-adaptive scheduler that is only allowed to choose one of the participants is no more powerful than a random scheduler. With this restriction, even an adaptive scheduler is not significantly more powerful than the random scheduler, provided it is ‘reasonably fair’.
The treatment of disorders of the nervous system poses a major clinical challenge. Development of neuromodulation (i.e., interfacing electronics to nervous tissue to modulate its function) has provided patients with neuronal-related deficits a new tool to regain lost function. Even though, in principle, electrical stimulation and recording by interfacing technology is simple and straightforward, each presents different challenges. In stimulation, the challenge lies in targeting the effects of stimulation on precise brain regions, as each region specializes for particular functions on a millimeter scale. In practice, our experience with deep brain stimulation for treating Parkinson’s disease reveals that stimulation of larger regions of the brain can be relatively well tolerated. However, the task of fabricating an ideal electrode that performs reliably for long periods of time has been daunting. The primary obstacle in successful interfacing comes from integration of electrodes (“foreign” material) into the nervous system (biological material). The second tier of complexity is added by the need for the electrodes to “sense” signals emanating from individual neurons, an estimated microenvironment of 10 to 20 microns in diameter. Materials design and technology impact electrode design—with their size, shape, mechanical properties, and composition all being actively optimized to enable chronic, stable recordings of neural activity. The articles in this issue discuss designing interfacing technology to “listen to the nervous system” from a materials perspective. These include identification of materials with a potential for in vivo development, electrodes with various material types, including natural nanocomposites, and optical neural interfacing.
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the role of return current in excitation of electronmagnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) structures. It is shown that only when return currents are excited parallel or anti-parallel to the background magnetic field the EMHD structures can be excited by a biased electrode in the plasma.
Ni and Ni-base alloys have been simultaneously chromized-aluminized by a halide-activated pack cementation coating process. The computer program SOLGASMIX was used to calculate the equilibrium partial pressures of the gaseous species. Chloride-activated packs are predicted to be chromizingaluminizing while fluoride-activated packs are not. Codeposition of Cr and Al occurs in packs containing 90–95 w/o Cr in the masteralloy and either NaCl, CrCl2 or NH4 C1 as the halide salt activator at 1273K.
A new strain relief mechanism in epitaxial layers of lattice mismatched face-centered cubic materials is identified using transmission electron microscopy. For an embedded strained layer near its critical thickness, we find that the primary strain-relaxation channel is through the formation of microtwins. A monolayer microtwin (a stacking fault) spanning the strained layer can form when a pair of partial dislocations of the <112> /6 type with antiparallel Burgers vectors are generated inside the strained layer and glide to the opposite interfaces. A series of partial dislocations can result in a microtwin several monolayers thick. For embedded strained layers of materials with small stacking fault energy, the formation of partial dislocation pairs is an energetically-favored strain relaxation channel, as compared to the formation of perfect dislocation pairs in the conventional double-kink model. Therefore, the mechanism proposed here poses fundamental limitations for strained layer device structures.
Radiation resistant ferrite materials have potential applications in space station. Mg-Mn spinel ferrite was choosen for this study because of its radiation resistance and potential for use as an insulator in radiation environments. The radiation damage expected in these environments can be quickly and conveniently simulated using ion irradiation. The results of swift heavy ion irradiation induced modifications in the magnetization behavior of the Mg-Mn ferrite nanoparticles have been investigated using 100 MeV Ni8+ ion irradiation. To ensure the singlephase spinel structure of the system powder x-ray diffraction patterns has been performed. The powder samples were irradiated at three different fluences in the range 1×1012-5×1013 ions/cm2. Isothermal dc magnetization studies have been performed using SQUID and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) on the pristine as well as on the irradiated samples at 20 K and 300 K. With irradiation saturation magnetization remains almost constant with ions irradiation. The coercivity values of the materials decreased about 5% with the fluence 1×1013 ions/cm2 as compare to the pristine nanoparticles. The results have been explained on the basis of the existence of surface defects produced by swift heavy ions, which generate orientational disorder of surface spins. The behavior of saturation magnetization with irradiations makes these nanoparticles suitable for memory devices in the space research.