To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40–60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. Following a process that involved community engagement, training of project staff and participant informed consent, participants were administered detailed questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken and biospecimens collected. This generated a wealth of demographic, health history, environmental, behavioural and biomarker data. The H3Africa SNP array will be used for genome-wide association studies. AWI-Gen is building capacity to perform large epidemiological, genomic and epigenomic studies across several African counties and strives to become a valuable resource for research collaborations in Africa.
The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), usually referring to the inner 500 pc of the Galaxy, contains a dozen of massive (~105M⊙) molecular clouds. Are these clouds going to actively form stars like Sgr B2? How are they affected by the extreme physical conditions in the CMZ, such as strong turbulence? Here we present a first step towards answering these questions. Using high-sensitivity, high angular resolution radio and (sub)millimeter observations, we studied deeply embedded star formation in six massive clouds in the CMZ, including the 20 and 50 km s−1 clouds, Sgr B1 off (as known as dust ridge clouds e/f), Sgr C, Sgr D, and G0.253 – 0.016. The VLA water maser observations suggest a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates, many of which are new detections. The SMA 1.3 mm continuum observations reveal peaks in dust emission associated with the masers, suggesting the existence of dense cores. While our findings confirm that clouds such as G0.253 – 0.016 lack internal compact substructures and are quiescent in terms of star formation, two clouds (the 20 km s−1 cloud and Sgr C) stand out with clusters of water masers with associated dense cores which may suggest a population of deeply embedded protostars at early evolutionary phases. Follow-up observations with VLA and ALMA are necessary to confirm their protostellar nature.
The inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), is our closest laboratory for understanding star formation in the extreme environments (hot, dense, turbulent gas) that once dominated the universe. We present an update on the first large-area survey to expose the sites of star formation across the CMZ at high-resolution in submillimeter wavelengths: the CMZoom survey with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We identify the locations of dense cores and search for signatures of embedded star formation. CMZoom is a three-year survey in its final year and is mapping out the highest column density regions of the CMZ in dust continuum and a variety of spectral lines around 1.3 mm. CMZoom combines SMA compact and subcompact configurations with single-dish data from BGPS and the APEX telescope, achieving an angular resolution of about 4″ (0.2 pc) and good image fidelity up to large spatial scales.
The molecular clouds in the Central Molecular Zone of our Galaxy (CMZ; inner ~200 pc) show systematically higher gas than dust temperatures (>50 K vs <30 K) in recent H2CO line and dust continuum surveys. This discrepancy is puzzling since gas and dust temperatures should become equal over short times at the high densities observed in these clouds. In deep H2CO(3–2) and (4–3) observations of seven clouds in the CMZ, we detected not only large temperature differences between the clouds but also large gradients within the clouds. Comparing the temperatures and the main H2CO lines at 218 and 291 GHz, we found a positive correlation between those two parameters, indicating that turbulence plays an important role in the heating of the gas. As a follow-up, we mapped the temperature tracers CH3CCH and CH3CN in these seven clouds to derive multiple temperature estimates and test the accuracy of high gas temperatures.
The factorial approach is used to measure the dietary indispensable amino acid (IAA) requirements in children, although recent measurements based on the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method have begun to generate more direct evidence. Difficulties with the factorial method are that it depends on accurate estimates of the maintenance protein requirement, as well as of protein deposition during growth. Also, a value for the efficiency of utilizing dietary protein for deposition has to be selected, based on published Nitrogen (N) balance studies. In the recent 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report, the amino acid requirement pattern for infants was taken to be similar to the amino acid composition of breast milk. For pre-school and older children, the factorial method gave values for the scoring pattern of protein that were fairly close to the earlier 1985 WHO/FAO/UNU report for children, since growth progressively became a smaller component of the factorial calculation as age progressed. However, given that there are several assumptions in the derivation of factorial estimates, direct experimental measurements of the amino acid requirement are desirable. The IAAO method, as it is non-invasive, as made it possible to measure the IAA requirements in children. Over the last decade, some of the IAA requirements have been determined by using the IAAO method in healthy school age children; however, the data on IAA requirements in developing country populations are still being conducted. In the elderly, there are not enough data to make a separate recommendation for IAA requirements from that of adults.
Linear electrostatic waves in a magnetized four-component, two-temperature electron–positron plasma are investigated, with the hot species having the Boltzmann density distribution and the dynamics of cooler species governed by fluid equations with finite temperatures. A linear dispersion relation for electrostatic waves is derived for the model and analyzed for different wave modes. Analysis of the dispersion relation for perpendicular wave propagation yields a cyclotron mode with contributions from both cooler and hot species, which in the absence of hot species goes over to the upper hybrid mode of cooler species. For parallel propagation, both electron-acoustic and electron plasma modes are obtained, whereas for a single-temperature electron–positron plasma, only electron plasma mode can exist. Dispersion characteristics of these modes at different propagation angles are studied numerically.
Thin Al films alloyed with three different compositions (0.1%, 1%, 5% by weight) of Yttrium were deposited by D.C. Magnetron Sputtering onto oxidized Si wafer substrates. The samples were furnace annealed at 425 °C for 30 minutes. Resistivity measured for the as-deposited and annealed Al(0. lwt% Y) were 3.07 and 2.57+/−0.25 μΩcm respectively. Al(0. lwt% Y) was also annealed by furnace annealing (FA), rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and rapid photothermal annealing (RPA). RPA gave a residual resistivity of 2.67μΩcm in 5 minutes and at a temperature of 350 C for Al(0. lwt% Y). Mean time to failure for AI(0. lwt% Y) samples at a current density of 3.2+/−0.5×106A/cm2 at 30 C was 50 hours. TEM results showed grain size variation from 0.5 to 2 μm.
The existence of large amplitude solitary waves in a plasma comprised of a cold negative dust fluid, adiabatic positive dust fluid, Boltzmann electrons and non-thermal ions is theoretically investigated. Different regions in parameter space that correspond to different values of the ratio of the charge-to-mass ratios of the positive and negative dust grains have been identified where either negative or positive potential solitary wave structures occur and a region where coexistence of negative and positive potential solitary waves is supported.
The composite rare earth chloride produced from monazite contain low levels of natural radionuclides and is being used as the input material for the production of individual rare earth compounds which have wide applications. Gross alpha, beta and 228Ra activity concentrations in composite rare earth chloride and individual rare earth compounds such as oxides of Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Gd etc are presented. The significant radionuclide of environmental concern is identified as 228Ra and the activity level varied between 0.1 and 7.8 Bq.g-1 in different compounds. Sporadic 228Ra levels up to 16 Bq.g-1 was observed in Lanthanum oxide. The external gamma exposure rates and airborne activity due to thorium and thoron progeny in the process locations are studied. The activity levels in liquid effluent and potential exposure scenarios are indicated.
The existence of large-amplitude dust-acoustic double layers is investigated in an unmagnetized dusty plasma comprising a negatively charged warm dust fluid, non-thermal ions and Boltzmann electrons. It is found that the non-thermal plasma supports the existence of rarefactive double layers only. The dependence of the double-layer amplitude and Mach number on various parameters such as the non-thermal parameter, dust temperature and electron concentration is numerically examined.
The influence of non-thermal ions on linear dust-acoustic waves is studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of ions which have a non-thermal velocity distribution, Boltzmann-distributed electrons and streaming dust particles. A detailed examination is conducted of the dependence of the real frequency and growth rate of the excited instability on the dust drift speed, temperature, particle densities and the parameter $\alpha$ that determines the non-thermal nature of the energetic ions. Comparisons with approximate analytical solutions are also made.
The radially symmetric self-similar expansion of a dusty plasma
cylindrical and spherical geometries. The electrons and ions are assumed
to be in
Boltzmann equilibria, while the dynamics of the dust particles is governed
fluid equations. The effects of finite dust pressure as well as
dust-charge variation are included.
Since Janssen's (1959) introduction of haloperidol, numerous clinical trials have been published showing its usefulness in the treatment of mania and hypomanic states. Davies (1962) found it an effective drug in the treatment of adult patients showing aggressive behaviour resulting from various causes, and in the management of mania. Gerle (1963), in his review, showed the effectiveness of this drug in the control of disturbed behaviour in mentally sub-normal patients. He also showed (1962) that patients taking this drug are remarkably free from toxic reactions such as jaundice, agranulocytosis and allergic dermatitis. Haloperidol has been used in our unit (Rogers, 1955, 1965a) over the past three years. The impression has been gained that it controls aggressive, overactive and destructive behaviour in severely disturbed children, without impairing their ability to participate normally in the therapeutic activities of the unit (Rogers, 1965b).