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We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.
The aim of this review paper is to review the data on tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) as an antimicrobial, antioxidant and acaricidal in poultry production. Tea tree exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 0.12 and 4 mg/ml. Its modes of action against Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli (0.12 to 1.5 mg/ml), Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (0.12 to 1 mg/ml), Aspergillus fumigatus (1.78 mg/ml) and yeast, Candida albicans (0.05 to 0.5 mg/ml) have been investigated using a range of different methods. As an antimicrobial, tea tree has high antifungal, bacteriostatic and germicidal activity (e.g. a decrease of 73.8% in Candida sp.), because of its components such as terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, linalool, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole. Its bioactive compounds such as α-terpinene, α-terpinolene and γ-terpinene show high antioxidant activity when applied in concentrations of 100 and 200 µl/ml, while its essential oils demonstrated free radical scavenging activity of 60 to 80%. Tea trees insecticidal and acaricidal properties have been tested for tick control. The mortality of ticks (Ixodes ricinus) and poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) have been recorded at levels over 60% and 80%, respectively, when used in concentrations of 0.15 to 0.30 mg/cm2 during in vitro testing, and in vivo, when sprayed in poultry houses. When tea tree was used in a form of essential oils as a dietary supplement in concentrations of 50 to 150 mg/kg in broiler chicken diets, a significant increase in daily weight (by around 7%) and decrease in morbidity and mortality were seen. Additionally, when applied in laying hen nutrition, a significant increase in daily egg production has been recorded. Tea tree essential oils when supplemented in poultry diets have high positive effects regarding productivity performance, but this requires further field experiments to clarify standardisation of the material and effective inclusion levels.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
The present cross-sectional serosurvey constitutes the first effort to describe the varicella zoster virus (VZV) seroepidemiology in Serbia. An age-stratified serum bank of 3570 residual samples collected between 2015 and 2016 in each of the seven districts of the Vojvodina Province was tested for IgG anti-VZV antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay. Results were standardised into common units according to the European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN2) methodology. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationships between standardised anti-VZV positivity or logarithmically transformed antibody titres and demographic features of study subjects. Seropositivity (85% overall) increased with age, in parallel with geometric mean titres. By the time of school entry, 68% of children were immune. The slower subsequent acquisition of immunity leaves epidemiologically relevant proportions of adolescents (7%), young adults (6%) and especially females of reproductive age (6%) prone to more severe forms of varicella. In the ongoing pre-vaccine era, natural infection provides a high level of collective immunity, with the highest VZV transmission in children of preschool age. The detected gaps in VZV immunity of the Serbian population support the adoption of the official recommendations for varicella immunisation of non-immune adolescents and young adults, including non-pregnant women of childbearing age.
Solar hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission was measured by BDRG instrument, the part of set of instruments operated on board the Russian satellite Lomonosov from April 2016 until now (solar-synchronous orbit with altitude 490 km, inclination of 97.6 degrees). Lomonosov measurements (11 flares with the X-ray energy more than 10 keV, and more than half of them have class in soft X-rays less than C2) were compared to the data obtained by RHESSI and Fermi space observatories as well as the Nobeyama Radioheliograph operating at the same time. The quasi-periodicity with different periods were found in some of them.
Results of characterization of 238Pu-doped Eu- and La-monazites using
single crystal XRD, Raman and XAFS spectroscopy and TEM are presented. It is
shown that despite significant accumulated doses (up to 9x1018
α-decays/gram) the Eu-monazite remains a single crystal. Unusual foamy
structures are observed by TEM and are interpreted as recrystallisation of
domains damaged by recoil U-ions. Partial recrystallisation of the surface
material is also supported by Raman and luminescence data.
In this work, we have obtained explicit analytical formulae expressing the wave resistance of a two-dimensional body in terms of geometric parameters of nonlinear downstream waves. The formulae have been constructed in the form of high-order asymptotic expansions in powers of the wave amplitude with coefficients depending on the mean depth. To obtain these expansions, the second Stokes method has been used. The analysis represents the next step of the research carried out in Maklakov & Petrov (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 776, 2015, pp. 290–315), where the properties of the waves have been computed by a numerical method of integral equations. In the present work, we have derived a quadratic system of equations with respect to the coefficients of the second Stokes method and developed an effective computer algorithm for solving the system. Comparison with previous numerical results obtained by the method of integral equations has been made.
The present-day realization of inertial coordinate system by means of traditional optical astrometry is the Fifth Fundamental Catalogue (FK5). The series of observations with new meridian instruments (CAMC, PMC-190, BAMC, HMC) show the significant correlated differences (up to 0.″1) of observational catalogues from the FK5. Moreover, FK5 mean epoch appears to be old (about 50 years ago) and FK5 proper motions would have essential errors owing to the fact that not many new original catalogues (only 25 in RA and 15 in DEC) were used when compiling FK5. It should be noted also that FK5 has a dissimilar accuracy of positions and proper motions of “old” and “new” stars.
In experiments with neutral beam injection at the early stage of a Globus-M discharge, instabilities were observed that were excited by fast ions in the frequency range of 50–200 kHz, which were identified as toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) (Petrov et al., Plasma Phys. Rep., vol. 37, 2011, pp. 1001–1005). In contradiction with the NSTX and MAST tokamaks, a regime of TAE generation was realized with strongly developed single modes. Magnetic measurements with fast Mirnov probes have shown that most of the modes have toroidal number
. The influence of the modes on the fast particle confinement was recorded by means of a tangentially directed neutral particle analyser (NPA) and neutron detector. Hydrogen and deuterium were used as target plasma and injected beam for study of the isotopic effect. At deuterium injection into the deuterium plasma, TAE led to the neutron rate dropping by 25 %, whereas NPA fluxes of high energy dropped by 75 %. At hydrogen injection, the drop in the measured NPA fluxes did not exceed 25 %.
In this work we have obtained exact analytical formulae expressing the wave resistance of a two-dimensional body by the parameters of the downstream non-breaking waves. The body moves horizontally at a constant speed
in a channel of finite depth
. We have analysed the relationships between the parameters of the upstream flow and the downstream waves. Making use of some results by Keady & Norbury (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 70, 1975, pp. 663–671) and Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 295, 1995, pp. 337–356), we have rigorously proved that realistic steady free-surface flows with a positive wave resistance exist only if the upstream flow is subcritical, i.e. the Froude number
. For all solutions with downstream waves obtained by a perturbation of a supercritical upstream uniform flow the wave resistance is negative. Applying a numerical technique, we have calculated accurate values of the wave resistance depending on the wavelength, amplitude and mean depth.
Poultry biodiversity conservation is a great challenge for many countries. Within the last several years, the number of endangered local breeds has increased, leading to a considerable loss of genetic resources. A similar trend was observed among the poultry breeds, including chicken, local turkey and goose breeds/lines established in Bulgaria, part of which is definitely lost. Currently these breeds/lines are at risk and/or threatened with extinction. The information obtained by phenotypic characterization of these breeds is the first step for planning the management of poultry genetic resources through setting up improved selection schemes and conservation strategies. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of knowledge regarding the morphological and phenotypic diversity of local poultry breeds and some old productive poultry lines in Bulgaria.
Laying hen rearing systems have been the focus of scientific research for many years. Over the last few decades, new laying hen rearing systems have been rapidly introduced in an effort to harmonise poultry health and welfare with consumer, producer, industry and environmental demands. Given the above situation, the subject matter of this paper was a comparative review of the results obtained by different authors on the effect of rearing system on productive traits (egg production and mortality) and egg quality characteristics (egg weight, proportions of main egg parts, Haugh units, yolk colour and carotenoids) in laying hens. Although productive performance in alternative systems is often lower compared to conventional, intensive layers, eggs from alternative systems have been proven in numerous studies to have better nutritional properties. Moreover, research results indicate differences within rearing systems. In view of this, this overview of the literature on the use of different rearing systems in table egg production can serve as a tool in determining the future direction of research as well as an indicator of its practical application.
Alternative laying hen rearing systems have been rapidly introduced into poultry production in an effort to harmonise poultry health and welfare with consumer, producer, industry and environmental demands. They are an integral part of modern egg production. Husbandry systems for keeping laying hens have an impact on, inter alia, the chemical composition of eggs. The subject matter of this study is a comparative review of the results obtained by different authors on the effect of rearing system on chemical composition (proteins, lipids, cholesterol, vitamins and fatty acids content) and hygienic conditions of eggs from different rearing systems of laying hens. Eggs from these laying hen rearing systems have been proven by a large body of literature data to have better nutritional properties. Moreover, the results analysed also indicate differences within rearing systems. Rearing systems also have an influence on hygienic and microbiological quality of eggs. In view of the above, this comparable overview of the literature on the use of different rearing systems in table egg production can serve as a tool in determining the future direction of research as well as an indicator of its practical application.
In this research, we performed experimental investigations of the influence of copper presence on hardness of arsenic triselenide (As2Se3)–arsenic triiodide (AsI3) pseudobinary glasses. The samples belong to the group of chalcogenide glasses, that, when compared with oxide glasses, can be synthesized much more easily in a wide variety of compositions, allowing also fine-tuning of their properties. Here, presence of iodine (I) facilitates glass formation, whereas addition of copper (Cu) creates possibility for interesting optoelectronic properties. As it is important to study mechanical properties of materials with respect to their fabrication and manipulation, we report results of instrumented indentation testing (IIT) of bulk samples of Cux[(As2Se3)0.9(AsI3)0.1]100−x with x = 5, 10, 20, and 25 at.% of Cu. This technique enables fast determination of indentation hardness, hardness value according to Vickers and indentation modulus directly from the indentation load–displacement curves. It was shown that all these parameters increase linearly with the increase of copper content. Improvement of the mechanical properties justifies the addition of Cu into the glass matrix.
Poultry rearing systems have been the focus of scientific research for many years as a result of consumer demand for high-quality products and legal poultry welfare requirements. Given these requirements, the following study was carried out as a comparative review of the results obtained by different authors on the effect of rearing systems on productive traits (growth, feed conversion and mortality) and meat quality traits (dressing percentage, yield and percentage of primal cuts, and chemical composition of meat) in broilers.
Most authors reported a lower final body weight and poorer feed conversion efficiency in free-range systems compared to intensive rearing. Conversely, better meat quality traits, most notably in terms of chemical composition of meat, were observed in non-intensive and organic broilers. The above traits showed differences within the same rearing system, due to the effect of a range of genetic and non-genetic factors.
In view of the above, it is hoped that the following review on the use of different rearing systems in broiler meat production can serve as a tool in determining the future direction of research as well as an indicator of its practical applications.
This study aimed to compare the prognostic impact of comorbidity grading by the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 index and the Charlson Comorbidity Index on the five-year overall and disease-specific survival in patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
The impact of comorbidity and other factors on survival was examined retrospectively in a group of 177 patients with previously untreated tumour stage one to four laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma surgically treated at the Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, between 2000 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify independent prognostic factors.
On univariate analysis, comorbidity had an impact on prognosis regardless of which index was used. On multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of patients' five-year overall and disease-specific survival were tumour–node–metastasis stage and comorbidity as graded by the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 index.
The Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 index is a more reliable predictor of survival than the Charlson Comorbidity Index in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cerianite-(Ce), ideally CeO2, occurs as rounded grains up to 5 μm across in a block of highly altered calcite carbonatite lava from the Kerimasi volcano, and as euhedral crystals up to 200 μm across in carbonatite-derived eluvial deposits in the Kisete and Loluni explosion craters in the Gregory Rift, northern Tanzania. X-ray powder diffraction data (a = 5.434(5) Å) and Raman spectroscopy (minor vibration modes at 184 and 571 cm—1 in addition to a strong signal at 449 cm—1) suggest the presence of essential amounts of large cations and oxygen vacancies in the Kisete material. Microprobe analyses reveal that the mineral contains both light and heavy trivalent rare earth elements (REE) (7.9-15.5 wt.% LREE2O3 and 4.9-9.7 wt.% HREE2O3), and that it is enriched in yttrium (7.1 — 14.5 wt.% Y2O3) and fluorine (2.2—3.5 wt.%). Single-crystal structure refinement of the mineral confirms a fluorite-type structure with a cation—anion distance of 2.3471(6) Å. The cerianite-(Ce) is considered to be a late-stage secondary mineral in the carbonatitic rocks.
Fully exchanged Ag-clinoptilolite prepared at 100°C using 1 M solution of AgNO3 was studied. The initial sample (Beli Plast deposit, Bulgaria) was enriched in clinoptilolite by a sequence of treatments – crushing, sieving, sedimentation, and separation with heavy liquids to obtain a content of about 93 wt.% of clinoptilolite intergrown with opal-C. Opal-C was subsequently removed by chemical treatment. Maximum cation exchange was reached on the seventh day (4.86(4) Ag atoms per formula unit). Rietveld structural refinement was then carried out on the Ag-exchanged clinoptilolite, and three independent Ag sites were localated in the channels of the clinoptilolite structure. Seven water sites, coordinating the Ag sites, were located. Ag-clinoptilolite is, potentially, a promising low-cost antibacterial material.
Cement mortars and concretes incorporating clinoptilolite, silica fume and fly ash were investigated for changes in their physical and mechanical properties. It was found that additions of 10% clinoptilolite and 10% Pozzolite (1:1 mixture of silica fume and fly ash) were optimal for improvement of the quality of the hardened products, giving 8% and 13% increases in flexural and compressive strength respectively. The specific pore volume of the mortars incorporating zeolite decreased between the 28th and 180th day to levels below the values for the control composition due to the fact that clinoptilolite exhibits its pozzolanic activity later in the hydration. In these later stages, pores with radii below 500 nm increased at the expense of larger pores. The change in the pore-size distribution between the first and sixth months of hydration occurs mostly in the mortars with added zeolite.