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The current study was undertaken to identify the sources of tolerance to bruchid in cowpea, by screening a set of germplasm accessions as a source for natural resistance. A total of 103 diverse accessions of cowpea were evaluated for resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. under no-choice artificial infestation conditions. Significant differences among the cowpea accessions were observed for oviposition, adult emergence, exit holes and per cent seed weight loss (PSWL) caused by the bruchid infestation. The accessions showed variation in physical seed parameters viz., colour, shape, testa texture, length, width and seed hardness. Among the seed biochemical parameters studied, per cent sugar content ranged from 0.322 (IC330950) to 1.493 (IC249137), and per cent phenol content ranged from 0.0326 (EC390261) to 1.081 (EC528423). Correlation studies indicated that PSWL had significant positive correlation (r = 0.335) with exit holes, oviposition (r = 0.219), adult emergence (r = 0.534) and seed roundness (r = 0.219). Adult emergence had a significant negative correlation with seed hardness (r = −0.332). Correlation with biochemical parameters indicated that PSWL had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.231) with sugar content and a significant negative correlation with phenol content (r = −0.219). None of the accessions were found to be immune to bruchid infestation. However, out of studied accessions, EC528425 and EC528387 were identified as resistant based on PSWL and moderately resistant based on adult emergence. These resistance sources of cowpea germplasm can be used as potential donors for development of bruchid tolerant/resistant cultivars.
OCD is a complex disorder with multiple aetiological theories. Recent research points to role of autoimmunity as well as hyperactivity of glutaminergic pathways in aetiopathogenesis of the disorder. It is possible that autoimmune mechanisms may modulate excitatory neurotransmission resulting in OCD.
This study aimed to study the association between serum anti-basal ganglia autoantibodies (ABGA) and Glx (glutamate + glutamine) levels in caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex as demonstrated by 1H-MRS (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy).
Thirty psychotropic-naive OCD patients and an equal number of age, gender matched healthy controls were studied using 1H-MRS and levels of Glx were obtained. ABGA was measured using ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) technique and categorised as present or absent in the serum.
ABGA was present in significantly higher proportion of patients as compared to controls (P < 0.05). Glx level was significantly higher (as measured by 1H-MRS) in patients with ABGA as compared to those without ABGA (P = 0.02). The study results did not differ based on age, gender, disease severity and illness duration.
The study demonstrates presence of ABGA in at least a subset of OCD population. The significant correlation between brain Glx levels and presence of ABGA provides a putative neurobiological framework for OCD. The strengths of the study include psychotropic-naive patients, blinded investigators and use of standardized instruments. The limitations include small sample size, use of Glx as proxy measure of glutamate and lack of other disorder controls. Similar studies on a larger sample are warranted for a better understanding.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In vitro studies have demonstrated possible neuroprotective effects of the following pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α against glutaminergic excitotoxicity in brain through different pathways.
In the current study, we aim to correlate level of the above pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum with glutamate levels in head of caudate nucleus measured using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a neuropsychiatric illness with possible multifactorial aetiology including immunological and excitotoxic factors.
Thirty psychotropic-naïve patients with OCD and an equal number of gender and age-matched normal controls were recruited in the study. A detailed psychiatric assessment was carried out including sociodemographic and clinical variables. A 3T MR imaging and spectroscopy session was carried out in head of caudate nucleus. Further, absolute quantification of glutamate level was obtained using LC model. Simultaneously, 5 mL of blood sample was collected and assayed for the above pro-inflammatory cytokines (Siemens, Immulite™). The level of glutamate was correlated with the cytokine levels in patients with OCD.
The level of Glx was significantly higher in patients with OCD as compared to controls (P < 0.05). The Glx level negatively correlated with two of the three pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-6 and TNF-α (r = −0.807; r = −0.838; P < 0.05) while no significant correlation was demonstrated with IL-1β.
The findings provide preliminary evidence regarding possible neuroprotective effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines against glutaminergic excitotoxicity in patients with OCD. Further studies including patients with other psychiatric illnesses as controls are required for confirmation of the above findings.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The recent crash of Germanwings Flight 4U9525 appears to be the latest act of aircraft-assisted murder-suicide. The psychiatric preventive aspects of the murder-suicide need to be discussed, and effective measures for recognition and prevention of this murder-suicide are needed. Aircrew health is biased towards the physical ailments, and evaluation manuals have not discussed the mental health aspects, especially preventive strategies. These strategies involve multifactorial interventions, their applicability and usefulness are not globally validated.
Objectives and methods
Thanatology has since long, focused on early detection of mental distress and elucidating behavioural and psychological factors that predispose towards attempts at self-harm. Aircrew forms a different group from the general population. The recognition and preventive strategies in this special group, must, therefore, be tailored to this group with its special characteristics.
Data sources, study selection and data synthesis publications were identified via electronic searches using multiple search terms related to suicide prevention. The available effective preventive measures were juxtaposed on the current concepts in aerospace psychiatry.
Murder-suicide by aircrew is an event that is the culmination of undetected, ignored or even condoned discrete events that gradually progress and insidiously escalate. The importance of psychological factors in this catastrophic event needs to be disseminated amongst psychiatrists, and aircrew medical examiners. Ascertaining which components of suicide prevention programmes are effective in early recognition of aircrew who may attempt or complete the murder-suicide and putting into practice these to optimize the use of limited resources, is therefore essential and necessary.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in the developed countries.
Data from hospital discharge records were obtained from the National Kids Inpatient Database for years 2009 and 2012. Hospitalisations by months, hospital regions, timing of admission, insurance types, and ethnicity were analysed. Length of stay and total charges were also analysed.
There were 10,486 cases of Kawasaki disease from 12,678,005 children hospitalisation. Kawasaki disease was more common between 0 and 5 years old, in male, and in Asian. The January–March quarter had the highest rate compared to the lowest in the July–September quarter (OR=1.62, p < 0.001). Admissions on the weekend had longer length of stay [4.1 days (95 % CI: 3.97–4.31)] as compared to admissions on a weekday [3.72 days (95 % CI: 3.64–3.80), p < 0.001]. Blacks had the longest length of stay and whites had the shortest [4.33 days (95 % CI: 4.12–4.54 days) versus 3.60 days (95 % CI: 3.48–3.72 days), p < 0.001]. Coronary artery aneurysm was identified in 2.7 % of all patients with Kawasaki disease. Children with coronary artery aneurysm were hospitalised longer and had higher hospital charge. Age, admission during weekend, and the presence of coronary artery aneurysm had significant effect on the length of stay.
This report provides the most updated epidemiological information on Kawasaki disease hospitalisation. Age, admissions during weekend, and the presence of coronary artery aneurysm are significant contributors to the length of stay.
Agriculture in the Central Himalayan Region depends on the availability of suitable germplasm as well as natural conditions. Due to extreme weather conditions, food and nutrition security is a major issue for communities inhabiting these remote and inaccessible areas. Millets are common crops grown in these areas. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important crop and forms a considerable part of the diet in this region. The aim of the present study was to explore, collect, conserve and evaluate the untapped genetic diversity of foxtail millet at the molecular level and discover variability in their nutritional traits. A total of 30 accessions having unique traits of agronomic importance were collected and molecular profiling was performed. A total of 63 alleles were generated with an average of 2.52 alleles per locus and average expected heterozygosity of 0.37 ± 0.231. Significant genetic variability was revealed through the genetic differentiation (Fst) and gene flow (Nm) values. Structure-based analysis divided whole germplasm into three sub-groups. Rich variability was found in nutritional traits such as dietary fibre in husked grains, carbohydrate, protein, lysine and thiamine content. The collected germplasm may be useful for developing nutritionally rich and agronomically beneficial varieties of foxtail millet and also designing strategies for utilization of unexploited genetic diversity for food and nutrition security in this and other similar agro-ecological regions.
Although quality of life (QoL) is receiving increasing attention in bipolar disorder (BD) research and practice, little is known about its naturalistic trajectory. The dual aims of this study were to prospectively investigate: (a) the trajectory of QoL under guideline-driven treatment and (b) the dynamic relationship between mood symptoms and QoL.
In total, 362 patients with BD receiving guideline-driven treatment were prospectively followed at 3-month intervals for up to 5 years. Mental (Mental Component Score – MCS) and physical (Physical Component Score – PCS) QoL were measured using the self-report SF-36. Clinician-rated symptom data were recorded for mania and depression. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse MCS and PCS over time, QoL trajectories predicted by time-lagged symptoms, and symptom trajectories predicted by time-lagged QoL.
MCS exhibited a positive trajectory, while PCS worsened over time. Investigation of temporal relationships between QoL and symptoms suggested bidirectional effects: earlier depressive symptoms were negatively associated with mental QoL, and earlier manic symptoms were negatively associated with physical QoL. Importantly, earlier MCS and PCS were both negatively associated with downstream symptoms of mania and depression.
The present investigation illustrates real-world outcomes for QoL under guideline-driven BD treatment: improvements in mental QoL and decrements in physical QoL were observed. The data permitted investigation of dynamic interactions between QoL and symptoms, generating novel evidence for bidirectional effects and encouraging further research into this important interplay. Investigation of relevant time-varying covariates (e.g. medications) was beyond scope. Future research should investigate possible determinants of QoL and the interplay between symptoms and wellbeing/satisfaction-centric measures of QoL.
Influenza A(H1N1) viruses of the 2009 pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm09) continue to cause outbreaks in the post-pandemic period. During January to May 2015, an upsurge of influenza was recorded that resulted in high fatality in central India. Genetic lineage, mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and infection by quasi-species are reported to affect disease severity. The objective of this study is to present the molecular and epidemiological trends during the 2015 influenza outbreak in central India. All the referred samples were subjected to qRT–PCR for diagnosis. HA gene sequencing (23 survivors and 24 non-survivors) and cloning were performed and analyzed using Molecular Evolutionary Genomic Analyzer (MEGA 5·05). Of the 3625 tested samples, 1607 (44·3%) were positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, of which 228 (14·2%) individuals succumbed to death. A significant trend was observed in positivity (P = 0·003) and mortality (P < 0·0001) with increasing age. The circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was characterized as belonging to clade-6B. Clinically significant mutations were detected. Patients infected with the quasi-species of the virus had a greater risk of death (P = 0·009). This study proposes a robust molecular and clinical surveillance program for the detection and characterization of the virus, along with prompt treatment protocols to prevent outbreaks.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an emerging zoonotic disease in India which is prevalent in neighbouring countries. CCHF virus (CCHFV) is a widespread tick-borne virus which is endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and the Middle East. In the present study, samples of clinically suspected human cases from different areas of northern-western India were tested for the presence of CCHFV by RT–PCR through amplification of nucleocapsid (N) gene of CCHFV. Positive samples were sequenced to reveal the prevailing CCHFV genotype(s) and phylogenetic relatedness. A phylogenetic tree revealed the emergence of diverse strains in the study region showing maximum identity with the Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran strains, which was different from earlier reported Indian strains. Our findings reveal for the first time the emergence of the Asia 1 group in India; while earlier reported CCHFV strains belong to the Asia 2 group.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11) is one of the most prevalent and persistent health conditions among both professional (e.g. police) and non-traditional (e.g. construction worker) WTC responders, even several years after 9/11. However, little is known about the dimensionality and natural course of WTC-related PTSD symptomatology in these populations.
Data were analysed from 10 835 WTC responders, including 4035 police and 6800 non-traditional responders who were evaluated as part of the WTC Health Program, a clinic network in the New York area established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to evaluate structural models of PTSD symptom dimensionality; and autoregressive cross-lagged (ARCL) panel regressions were used to examine the prospective interrelationships among PTSD symptom clusters at 3, 6 and 8 years after 9/11.
CFAs suggested that five stable symptom clusters best represent PTSD symptom dimensionality in both police and non-traditional WTC responders. This five-factor model was also invariant over time with respect to factor loadings and structural parameters, thereby demonstrating its longitudinal stability. ARCL panel regression analyses revealed that hyperarousal symptoms had a prominent role in predicting other symptom clusters of PTSD, with anxious arousal symptoms primarily driving re-experiencing symptoms, and dysphoric arousal symptoms primarily driving emotional numbing symptoms over time.
Results of this study suggest that disaster-related PTSD symptomatology in WTC responders is best represented by five symptom dimensions. Anxious arousal symptoms, which are characterized by hypervigilance and exaggerated startle, may primarily drive re-experiencing symptoms, while dysphoric arousal symptoms, which are characterized by sleep disturbance, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties, may primarily drive emotional numbing symptoms over time. These results underscore the importance of assessment, monitoring and early intervention of hyperarousal symptoms in WTC and other disaster responders.
Longitudinal symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often characterized by heterogeneous trajectories, which may have unique pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. To date, however, no study has evaluated the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of PTSD symptoms in World Trade Center (WTC) responders.
A total of 10835 WTC responders, including 4035 professional police responders and 6800 non-traditional responders (e.g. construction workers) who participated in the WTC Health Program (WTC-HP), were evaluated an average of 3, 6 and 8 years after the WTC attacks.
Among police responders, longitudinal PTSD symptoms were best characterized by four classes, with the majority (77.8%) in a resistant/resilient trajectory and the remainder exhibiting chronic (5.3%), recovering (8.4%) or delayed-onset (8.5%) symptom trajectories. Among non-traditional responders, a six-class solution was optimal, with fewer responders in a resistant/resilient trajectory (58.0%) and the remainder exhibiting recovering (12.3%), severe chronic (9.5%), subsyndromal increasing (7.3%), delayed-onset (6.7%) and moderate chronic (6.2%) trajectories. Prior psychiatric history, Hispanic ethnicity, severity of WTC exposure and WTC-related medical conditions were most strongly associated with symptomatic trajectories of PTSD symptoms in both groups of responders, whereas greater education and family and work support while working at the WTC site were protective against several of these trajectories.
Trajectories of PTSD symptoms in WTC responders are heterogeneous and associated uniquely with pre-, peri- and post-trauma risk and protective factors. Police responders were more likely than non-traditional responders to exhibit a resistant/resilient trajectory. These results underscore the importance of prevention, screening and treatment efforts that target high-risk disaster responders, particularly those with prior psychiatric history, high levels of trauma exposure and work-related medical morbidities.
Since the discovery of the piezoelectric character of bone, the suitability of some piezoelectric materials have been studied for bone repair; they are thought to act like transducers converting the mechanical energy of skeletal deformation in electrical stimuli capable of controlling osteogenic growth. The mechanisms underlying this process are far from being understood and systematic studies at a local scale are required. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a unique way to observe phenomena at the nanoscale and liquid imaging provides a unique tool to assess biological phenomena at the nanoscale. So in this study, aiming at a better understanding of the role of piezoelectricity in the osteogenic growth, the interaction between a poled piezoelectric material, in this case poly (L-lactic) acid and an adhesion promoting protein, the fibronectin, and bone-like cells is evaluated by scanning probe microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).
Independent outbreaks of dengue virus (DENV) infection and sporadic cases of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been recorded in the metropolitan city of Delhi on several occasions in the past. However, during a recent 2010 arboviral outbreak in Delhi many cases turned negative for DENV. This prompted us to use duplex reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (D-RT–PCR) to establish the aetiology of dengue/chikungunya through sequencing of CprM and E1 genes of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Interestingly, for the first time, both DENV and CHIKV co-circulated simultaneously and in equally dominant proportion during the post-monsoon period of 2010. DENV-1 genotype III and the East Central South African genotype of CHIKV were associated with post-monsoon spread of these viruses.
The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.
To report an extremely rare case of gastroesophageal carcinoma presenting initially with salivary gland metastasis.
Case report and English language literature review concerning metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction, with emphasis on clinical presentation.
A 66-year-old man presented to the ENT rapid-access clinic with a right-sided neck swelling located in the tail of the right parotid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology suggested adenocarcinoma. An urgent Oesophago-Gastro-Duodenoscopy (OGD) and biopsy confirmed the presence of the primary tumour at the gastroesophageal junction.
To our best knowledge, this is the first report in the English language literature of a parotid mass as the presenting feature of gastroesophageal carcinoma.
The low-emittance design of the NSLS-II (a new state-of-the-art medium energy third-generation storage ring) requires that the uncorrelated vertical RMS motion between the multipole magnets on a girder be less than 25 nm. The stability of the girder–magnet assembly is affected by factors such as ambient vibration, temperature fluctuations and diurnal floor motion in the storage ring. In this paper we discuss the design features of a high-stability girder–magnet assembly for the NSLS-II.