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Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world's food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.
Here, different tissue surfaces of tomato root were characterized employing atomic force microscopy on day 7 and day 21 of growth through Young's modulus and plasticity index. These parameters provide quantitative information regarding the mechanical behavior of the tomato root under fresh conditions in different locations of the cross-section of root [cell surface of the epidermis, parenchyma (Pa), and vascular bundles (Vb)]. The results show that the mechanical parameters depend on the indented region, tissue type, and growth time. Thereby, the stiffness increases in the cell surface of epidermal tissue with increasing growth time (from 9.19 ± 0.68 to 13.90 ± 1.68 MPa) and the cell surface of Pa tissue displays the opposite behavior (from 1.74 ± 0.49 to 0.48 ± 0.55); the stiffness of cell surfaces of Vb tissue changes from 10.60 ± 0.58 to 6.37 ± 0.53 MPa, all cases showed a statistical difference (p < 0.05). Viscoelastic behavior dominates the mechanical forces in the tomato root. The current study is a contribution to a better understanding of the cell mechanics behavior of different tomato root tissues during growth.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
There are more than 30 distinct types of mammalian retinal ganglion cells, each sensitive to different features of the visual environment. In rabbit retina, they can be grouped into four classes according to their morphology and stratification of their dendrites in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). The goal of this study was to describe the synaptic inputs to one type of Class IV ganglion cell, the third member of the sparsely branched Class IV cells (SB3). One cell of this type was partially reconstructed in a retinal connectome developed using automated transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). It had slender, relatively straight dendrites that ramify in the sublamina a of the IPL. The dendrites of the SB3 cell were always postsynaptic in the IPL, supporting its identity as a ganglion cell. It received 29% of its input from bipolar cells, a value in the middle of the range for rabbit retinal ganglion cells studied previously. The SB3 cell typically received only one synapse per bipolar cell from multiple types of presumed OFF bipolar cells; reciprocal synapses from amacrine cells at the dyad synapses were infrequent. In a few instances, the bipolar cells presynaptic to the SB3 ganglion cell also provided input to an amacrine cell presynaptic to the ganglion cell. There was apparently no crossover inhibition from narrow-field ON amacrine cells. Most of the amacrine cell inputs were from axons and dendrites of GABAergic amacrine cells, likely providing inhibitory input from outside the classical receptive field.
A ϕ-ψ diffractometer has been designed and constructed to evaluate residual stresses in polycrystalline samples by x-ray diffraction. It permits rotations of the x-ray diffraction apparatus, consisting of an x-ray tube and a position-sensitive proportional counter, about two axes ϕ and ψ. The ϕ-rotation from 0° to 360° is carried out about the normal to the surface of the stationary sample, whereas the ψ-motion consists of a rotation from -45° to +45° about an axis lying in the sample surface and the diffraction plane, but perpendicular to the diffraction vector. This ϕ-ψ diffractometer permits the application of the ϕ- and ψ-differential and integral methods for the evaluation of the strain tensor and its gradient averaged over the depth of x-ray penetration into the sample. Assuming that isotropic elasticity theory is applicable, the stress tensor can then be evaluated from the measured strain tensor.
A curved, one-dimensional position-sensitive detector has been designed and constructed for the measurement of the scattering patterns from non-crystalline materials. The chamber is a one-dimensional, pressurized, gas-filled detector with delay line readout for position encoding. It covers an angular range of 45° in 2θ, and its quantum efficiency is 80% and 50% for 17.5 and 60 KeV x-rays, respectively, when using a Xe-20%CO2 gas mixture at 7 atm.
Low density (LD) steels have shown particular characteristics in terms of mechanical properties and microstructure, since they have high strength, high ductility and density reduction up to 18%. On the other hand, the addition of microalloying elements such as Ti and B generate hardening by solid solution and precipitation, as well as grain refinement effect. LD steels generate nano-sized kappa phase precipitated from the austenite matrix, and these advanced steels can reach strength and elongation up to 780 MPa and 60%, respectively. The main objective of this research work is the metallographic, structural and mechanical characterization of a LD steel microalloyed with Ti/B in as-cast and -homogenized conditions. For this purpose a Fe-27Mn-7Al-1.2C (%wt) LD steel microalloyed with Ti/B was melted in a vacuum-induction furnace and cast in metallic mold. LD-Ti/B steel samples were homogenized at 1100 °C during 20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 minutes followed by water quenching. Metallographic, structural and mechanical characterization was carried out by optical (LOM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and microhardness Vickers testing (HV10), respectively. In general, results showed a typical dendritic microstructure with average grain size of 1256 μm in the as-cast condition. On the other hand, the as-homogenized condition showed an austenitic equiaxial microstructure with average grain size from 164 to 940 μm. Austenite, ferrite and kappa phases were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Also, second-phase particles such as AlN, TiC and MnS were detected by LOM and SEM-EDS analysis. LD steel microalloyed with Ti/B exhibited the highest microhardness Vickers value (235 HV10) in the as-cast condition, whilst in the as-homogenized condition microhardness gradually decreases from 223 to 198 HV10 as holding time increases.
The Arizona Department of Health Services identified unusually high levels of influenza activity and severe complications during the 2015–2016 influenza season leading to concerns about potential increased disease severity compared with prior seasons. We estimated state-level burden and severity to compare across three seasons using multiple data sources for community-level illness, hospitalisation and death. Severity ratios were calculated as the number of hospitalisations or deaths per community case. Community influenza-like illness rates, hospitalisation rates and mortality rates in 2015–2016 were higher than the previous two seasons. However, ratios of severe disease to community illness were similar. Arizona experienced overall increased disease burden in 2015–2016, but not increased severity compared with prior seasons. Timely estimates of state-specific burden and severity are potentially feasible and may provide important information during seemingly unusual influenza seasons or pandemic situations.
Let (R, 𝔪) be a Noetherian local ring and I an arbitrary ideal of R with analytic spread s. In  the authors proved the existence of a chain of ideals I ⊆ I[s] ⊆ ⋅⋅⋅ ⊆ I such that deg(PI[k]/I) < s − k. In this article we obtain a structure theorem for this ideals which is similar to that of K. Shah in  for 𝔪-primary ideals.
Genetic improvement, without control of inbreeding, can go to loss of genetic variability, reducing the potential for genetic gains in the domestic populations. The aim of this study was to analyze the population structure and the inbreeding depression in Campolina horses. Phenotype information from 43 465 individuals was analyzed, data provided by the Campolina Breeders Association. A pedigree file containing 107 951 horses was used to connected the phenotyped individuals. The inbreeding coefficient was performed by use of the diagonal of the relationship matrix and the genealogical parameters were computed using proper softwares. The effective population size was estimated based on the rate of inbreeding and census information, and the stratification of the population was verified by the average relationship coefficient between animals born in different regions of Brazil. The effects of inbreeding on morphological traits were made by the use of inbreeding coefficient as a covariate in the model of random regression. The inbreeding coefficient increased from 1990 on, impacting effective population size and, consequently, shrinking genetic variability. The paternal inbreeding was greater than maternal, which may be attributed to the preference for inbred animals in reproduction. The average genetic relationship coefficient of animals born in different states was lower than individuals born within the same state. The increase in the inbreeding coefficient was negatively associated with all studied traits, showing the importance to avoid genetic losses in the long term. Although results do not indicate a severe narrowing of the population until the present date, the average relationship coefficient shows signs of increase, which could cause a drastic reduction in genetic variability if inbred mating is not successfully controlled in the Campolina horse population.
The main objective of our study was to describe the epidemiological and microbiological features of an oligoclonal hospital-wide outbreak caused by OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae (OXA-48-PE). OXA-48 is a carbapenemase belonging to Ambler class D beta-lactamases, identified frequently in the Mediterranean and Southern European countries, and associated with several Enterobacteriaceae species. An outbreak of OXA-48-PE with a complex epidemic pattern was detected in January 2011. Initial control measures included contact precautions and the reinforcement of infection control practices, but despite all efforts made, the epidemiological situation hardly changed and new measures were implemented during 2013. An observational retrospective study was performed to describe the main features of the outbreak and to analyse the cumulative incidence (CI) trends. Eight hundred and 16 patients colonised or infected by OXA-48-PE were identified during the 2-year period (January 2013–December 2014), female 46%, mean age (s.d.), 71.6 (15.2). The samples isolated in the incident cases were rectal swabs (80%), urine samples (10.7%), blood samples (2.8%) and other clinical samples (6.6%). The most frequent OXA-48-PE was Klebsiella pneumoniae. Eleven different clones were identified, but K. pneumoniae sequence types 11 and 405 were predominant: ST11 (64.2%) and ST405 (29.3%). OXA-48-PE CI trend suffered a statistically significant change in August 2013, which continued the following months. Though we could not eradicate the outbreak, we observed a statistically significant drop in CI after an intervention for OXA-48-PE control, based on patient cohort, active surveillance, electronic alerts and reinforcement of infection control measures in a tertiary hospital.
The SPICA mid- and far-infrared telescope will address fundamental issues in our understanding of star formation and ISM physics in galaxies. A particular hallmark of SPICA is the outstanding sensitivity enabled by the cold telescope, optimised detectors, and wide instantaneous bandwidth throughout the mid- and far-infrared. The spectroscopic, imaging, and polarimetric observations that SPICA will be able to collect will help in clarifying the complex physical mechanisms which underlie the baryon cycle of galaxies. In particular, (i) the access to a large suite of atomic and ionic fine-structure lines for large samples of galaxies will shed light on the origin of the observed spread in star-formation rates within and between galaxies, (ii) observations of HD rotational lines (out to ~10 Mpc) and fine structure lines such as [C ii] 158 μm (out to ~100 Mpc) will clarify the main reservoirs of interstellar matter in galaxies, including phases where CO does not emit, (iii) far-infrared spectroscopy of dust and ice features will address uncertainties in the mass and composition of dust in galaxies, and the contributions of supernovae to the interstellar dust budget will be quantified by photometry and monitoring of supernova remnants in nearby galaxies, (iv) observations of far-infrared cooling lines such as [O i] 63 μm from star-forming molecular clouds in our Galaxy will evaluate the importance of shocks to dissipate turbulent energy. The paper concludes with requirements for the telescope and instruments, and recommendations for the observing strategy.
This study aims to explain the victory of Hugo Chávez and his party in the 2000 Venezuelan elections, to analyze the factors that made this victory possible, and to examine the consequences for future developments in the Venezuelan political system. The decay of traditional party loyalties without the emergence of new parties deeply rooted in society (dealignment without realignment); underdevelopment; and an institutional setting dominated by a president elected by a plurality electoral system have opened the door to personality-centered politics and weak parties, which are the main features of the current political situation. Compared to the 1993 and 1998 elections, the 2000 elections once again confirm an increase in personality politics and the decay of parties as instruments for articulating interests, representation, and governance. As a consequence, this article argues, instability is likely to remain a feature of Venezuela's party system for some time.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
The emission lines of OVV quasars can vary significantly within a month, more rapidly than expected from photoionization models. This can be explained by anistropic continuum emission and joins several other lines of evidence suggesting anisotropic emission of the optical /uv continuum in AGN.
Earth based multichannel photometry of integral sunlight has been obtained at Izaña (Tenerife) during 1984–1986. Power spectra of the solar luminosity variations of individual days show power in the 5 minute interval above noise at a level comparable to SMM datad). When combining contigous days of data the signature of p mode solar oscillations spectrum appears* although individual peak identification is difficult.
Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is an important livestock species in many tropical and subtropical regions. In recent decades, the interest in buffalo’s milk have expanded and intensive buffalo farms start to emerge. However, breeding programs and population genetics information for this species is scarce or inexistent. The present study aims to test the suitability of the commercial high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping panel, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, to estimate population genetics parameters, pedigree control and identification of common variants in major production candidate genes. From a total of 777 962 SNPs included in the panel, 20 479 were polymorphic in water buffalo at a call rate of 86% and an average expected heterozygosity (HE) of 0.306. From these, 357 were mapped within or around the flanking regions of several major candidate genes. A principal components analysis identified three different clusters, each representing pure swamp buffalo type, pure river buffalo type and admixed river buffalo. The hybrids between swamp and river buffalo were clearly identified as an intermediary cluster. The suitability of these SNPs data set for parentage and identity testing demonstrated that the combination of just 30 to 50 SNPs were enough to attain high probabilities of parentage exclusion (0.9999) in both types and identity (2.3×10−5 and 2.0×10−7) for river and swamp buffalo, respectively. Our analysis confirms the suitability of the BovineHD BeadChip to assess population structure, hybridization and identity of the water buffalo populations.
Inbreeding has been associated with the impairment of reproductive performance in many cattle breeds. Although the usage of reproductive biotechnologies has been increasing in bovine populations, not much attention has been given to the impact of inbreeding over cow’s performance on artificial reproduction. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of inbreeding on in vitro embryo production in a Guzerá breed population. The inbreeding coefficient (F), calculated as half of the co-ancestry of the individual’s parents, was used as an estimate of inbreeding. The inbreeding coefficients of the donor, sire (used on in vitro fertilization) and of the embryos were included, separately, in the proposed models either as classificatory or continuous variables (linear and quadratic effects). The percentage of non-inbred individuals (or embryos) and mean F of donors, embryos and sires were 29.38%; 35.76%; 42.86% and 1.98±2.68; 1.32±3.13; 2.08±2.79, respectively. Two different models were considered, one for oocyte production traits and other for embryo production traits. The increase of F of the donor significantly (P<0.05) impaired the number of viable oocytes (NOV), number of grade I oocytes (NGI) and number of cleaved embryos (NCLV). Moreover, the donor’s F influenced the percentage of grade I oocytes (PGI), percentage of viable embryos (PEMB) and percentage of cleaved embryos that turned into embryos (PCXE). No significant (P>0.05) effects were observed for the sire (father of the embryos) inbreeding coefficient over the traits analysed. Embryo’s F influenced (P<0.05) the number of viable embryos (NEMB), percentage of viable embryos (PEMB) and percentage of cleaved embryos that turn into embryos (PCXE). Results suggested that an increase in the inbreeding coefficient might impair the embryos ability to survive through challenges imposed by the in vitro environment. Submitting highly inbred Guzerá female donors to in vitro embryo production may, in the long-term, have negative implications on the number of embryos obtained per cow and increase the relative costs of the improvement programmes based on this technology. High levels of inbreeding should be avoided when selecting Guzerá female donors and planning in vitro fertilization mating.