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Using survey data from 900 rural households, this article assesses the degree to which Soviet-era workplace inequality between rural males and females has been remediated by the introduction of democratic and market reforms. The overall effects of reform institutions are mixed. Concerning male-female workplace inequality, three continuities were found with the Soviet period. First, rural males have larger total incomes than do rural females. Second, equal pay for equal work does not exist: females holding similar positions to males earned less in all categories of employment. In addition, males continue to dominate numerically the ranks of farm managers and leaders. Third, managers and leaders of both sexes are the most entrepreneurial, measured by income from private business. Male managers, however, have over three times the income from private business as do female managers. Concerning intragender inequality, it was found that females with advanced education and specialized knowledge or skills have significantly higher incomes than women with lower skill sets.
The reporting period has shown that Space has become a firmly established domain in observational Astrophysics, also in the low energy astrophysics area. The launching of new spacecraft is always an important addition to the capabilities of the Astronomers, but the availability of space observatories is strongly affected by the fact that they disappear as their subsystems become damaged or, for other reasons, become inoperable. The relatively short life of astronomical space facilities has generated new dynamic in the life cycle of observational tools for the astronomer, rather different from that for ground facilities. Launch failures or the final in-orbit functionality verification can also very strongly affect the availability of observational capabilities in space astrophysics. The only spacecraft designed without this built-in life time restriction, is the Hubble Space Telescope, which can be serviced by the Space Shuttle.
A thirteen-beam HI receiver has been constructed for the Parkes radio telescope. When this instrument is used in active scanning mode, it can rapidly survey large areas of sky, with a relatively uniform sensitivity. The Multibeam Working Group, comprising about 30 astronomers from more than a dozen institutions, is undertaking a blind HI survey of the entire southern sky. The status of the survey is described, with some of the first scientific results.
A radiochemical 71Ga−71 Ge experiment to determine the integral flux of neutrinos from the sun has been constructed at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the USSR. Measurements have begun with 30 tonnes of gallium. The experiment is being expanded with the addition of another 30 tonnes. The motivation, experimental procedures, and present status of this experiment are presented.
La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.6Ni0.4O2.9 (LSFN) and LSFN-La9.83Si4.5Fe1.5O26 (LSiF) nanocomposite were synthesized and investigated as cathode materials for intermediate temperature (IT) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Phase and structure evolution with sample sintering temperature as well as their transport properties and catalytic activity in oxygen reduction were studied.
Although chemical vapor deposited mullite (3Al2O3•2SiO2) environmental barrier coatings have shown promise in protecting Si-based substrates for gas-turbine applications, there is concern that the silica content within the mullite coating itself might be susceptible to hot-corrosion and recession during long term exposure to corrosive atmospheres. There is thus a strong motivation to substantially reduce or even virtually eliminate the silica from the surface of the mullite coatings that are in direct contact with atmospheres containing corrosive oxides and steam. Functionally graded mullite (3Al2O3•2SiO2) coatings have been grown for Si-based substrates and the composition has been tailored in these coatings, with the Al/Si ratio being stoichiometric (∼ 3) at the coating/substrate interface for coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) match, and increasing monotonically towards the outer coating surface. These functionally graded coatings have some of the highest Al-rich mullite reported to date at the coating surface. At these extremely high Al/Si ratios, mullite structure breaks down and the formation of a nano-sized high-alumina rich phase occurs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been used to characterize the structure and composition of high alumina mullite and will be discussed.
A method from molecular dynamics simulation is developed for determining local elastic constants of an epoxy/nanotube composite. The local values of C11, C33, K12, and K13 elastic constants are calculated for an epoxy/nanotube composite as a function of radial distance from the nanotube. While the results possess a significant amount of statistical uncertainty resulting from both the numerical analysis and the molecular fluctuations during the simulation, the following observations can be made. If the size of the region around the nanotube is increased from shells of 1Å to 6Å in thickness, then the scatter in the data reduces enough to observe trends. All the elastic constants determined are at a minimum 20Å from the center of the nanotube. The C11, C33, and K12 follow similar trends as a function of radial distance from the nanotube. The K13 decreases greater distances from the nanotube and becomes negative which may be a symptom of the statistical averaging.
Principal challenges to direct fabrication of high performance a-Si:H transistor arrays on flexible substrates include automated handling through bonding-debonding processes, substrate-compatible low temperature fabrication processes, management of dimensional instability of plastic substrates, and planarization and management of CTE mismatch for stainless steel foils. In collaboration with our industrial and academic partners, we have developed viable solutions to address these challenges, as described in this paper.
Within the IAEA EMRAS programme, a working group was established to look at the modelling of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in a variety of environments. There are many models already available. However, guidance on how and when to apply specific models is lacking in many cases. Development of models has often been carried out without a clear understanding of the possible applications of the models. Some models have been developed only for specific applications in specific industries, and are not generally useful. The work carried out during this program has resulted in the identification of several important issues that require consideration in the selection and utilization of computer models for NORM risk assessment. These issues discussed below cover suitability, selection, use and misuse of available models, as well as training and guidance for modelers, and acquisition of data for model inputs.
This work is an extension of our previous studies carried out to investigate the possible catalytic role of minerals in the abiotic synthesis of biologically important molecules. In the presence of montmorillonite, a member of the phyllosilicate group minerals that are abundant on Earth and identified on Mars, activated RNA monomers, namely 5′-phosphorimidazolides of nucleosides (ImpNs), undergo condensation reactions in aqueous electrolyte solution producing oligomers with similar structures to short RNA fragments. Analysis of the linear trimer isomers formed in the reaction of a mixture of activated adenosine and cytidine monomers (ImpA and ImpC, respectively) employing high-performance liquid chromatography, selective enzymatic hydrolysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy molecular weight measurements demonstrate that montmorillonite catalysis facilitates the formation of hetero-isomers containing 56% A- and 44% C-monomer incorporated in their structure. The results also show that 56% of the monomer units are linked together by RNA-like 3′, 5′-phosphodiester bonds. These results follow the same trend observed in our most recent work studying the reaction of activated adenosine and uridine monomers, and support Bernal's hypothesis proposing the possible catalytic role of minerals in the abiotic processes in the course of chemical evolution.
Major depression is associated with activation of the inflammatory response.
To examine C-reactive protein levels in depression and to determine the impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy.
Atwo-part study. In study 1, which used a between-subjects design, C-reactive protein was measured in 32 patients (20 currently depressed, 12 euthymic) with a history of DSM–IV major depression, all of whom were treated with an SSRI, and in a healthy comparison group (n=20). Study 2 employed a within-subject design: C-reactive protein was measured in 20 patients with major depression both before and after SSRI treatment.
In study 1, C-reactive protein levels did not differ between the group with depressive disorder (either currently depressed or euthymic) treated with SSRIs and the healthy group. In study 2 the protein levels dropped significantly following treatment with antidepressant medication.
Following SSRI treatment for major depression there is a significant drop in C-reactive protein concentrations whether or not the depression resolves. These findings indicate that antidepressants induce an anti-inflammatory response independent of antidepressant action.