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A filamentary magnetic structure is produced on the plasma current sheath of a coaxial accelerator operated with deuterium. Space and time analysis of X-ray, neutron and visible-light emission indicates that the magnetic energy of the filaments is transferred to the plasma during a process of decay of the filaments. X-ray photographs show very localized regions (diameter <0.5 mm) of strong emission. Some of these regions are also located where the plasma is not subject to a maximum of compression. Similar bright spots (Hβ) are observed by 5 ns image converter photographs. The detailed analytical description of the self-consistent fields is deduced. The localized regions of strong emission may well correspond with the explosive onset of an instability at a point on a filament (single filament decay) or at a point where two filaments with opposite fields coalesce with magnetic field annihilation. The similarities with solar flares are considered.
To systematically review the literature on the occurrence of psychiatric diagnoses in a tinnitus-affected population, and correlate the presence of psychiatric disorders with tinnitus-related annoyance and severity.
A systematic review of the literature published between January 2000 and December 2012 was performed using PubMed, ISI Web of Science and SciELO databases. Original articles in English and Portuguese that focused on the diagnosis of mental disorders associated with tinnitus, especially anxiety and depression, were identified.
A total of 153 articles were found and 16 were selected. Fifteen articles showed a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in tinnitus-affected patients, and nine showed a high correlation between the presence of a psychiatric disorder and tinnitus-related annoyance and severity.
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and depression, is high in tinnitus patients, and the presence of these disorders correlates with tinnitus-related annoyance and severity.
The intensity of X-ray sources in a focused deuterium plasma produced by a coaxial accelerator has been analysed as a function of position, X-ray energy and time of emission. The X-ray source in the axial region can be resolved (by micro- densitometer readings on X-ray pinhole camera films) as a sequence of small sources (linear dimension ∼ 0.1–0.3 mm) of hard radiation ≳ 2 ke V inside a more diffused source (cylindrical region of 1–4mm diameter) of softer X-rays. In each discharge the point sources are distributed for the most part in the general axial region of the discharge and two or more sources with different radial positions can be frequently observed for one specific value of the axial co-ordinate. Images of localized X-ray sources are also observed in the off-axis halo region. Multiple repinching of the axial plasma column or emission from metal-vapour clouds (by anode bombardment) can be ruled out in this experiment (hollow central electrode, or anode, radius 3·4 cm). The source multiplicity can be related to a complex (filamentary) structure of the plasma.
This study deals with the simulation of the experimental study of Roth
et al. (2000) on the interaction of
energetic Zn projectiles in partially ionized laser produced carbon
targets, and with similar type experiments. Particular attention is paid
to the specific contributions of the K and L shell target electrons to
electron recombination in the energetic Zn ionic projectile. The classical
Bohr–Lindhard model was used for describing recombination, while
quantum mechanical models were also introduced for scaling the L to K
cross-section ratios. It was found that even for a hydrogen-like carbon
target, the effect of the missing five bound electrons brings about an
increase of only 0.6 charge units in the equilibrium charge state as
compared to the cold target value of 23. A collisional radiative
calculation was employed for analyzing the type of plasma produced in the
experimental study. It was found that for the plasma conditions
characteristic of this experiment, some fully ionized target plasma atoms
should be present. However in order to explain the experimentally observed
large increase in the projectile charge state a very dominant component of
the fully ionized plasma must comprise the target plasma. A procedure for
calculating the dynamic evolvement of the projectile charge state within
partially ionized plasma is also presented and applied to the type of
plasma encountered in the experiment of Roth et al. (2000). The low temperature and density tail on the
back of the target brings about a decrease in the exiting charge state,
while the value of the average charge state within the target is dependent
on the absolute value of the cross-sections.
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