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This study aimed to assess and compare the epidemiology of faecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) in Hepatology departments of two hospitals specializing in liver diseases, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) in Cairo (Egypt) and Beaujon Hospital (Bj) in Clichy (France). CTX-M groups were identified by PCR, and TEM and SHV derivatives with the check-point system. Phylogenetic groups of E. coli were determined by multiplex PCR, and clone ST131 by PCR of gene pabB. Prevalence of ESBL-E was 77·6% (45/58) in TBRI and 6·5% (13/199) in Bj (P < 10−7). Previous hospitalization was more common (P = 0·003) in Bj patients (93%) than in TBRI patients (45%) suggesting high prevalence of ESBL-E in the Egyptian community. The presence of E. coli B2 ST131 among ESBL-E faecal E. coli in Egypt confirms its pervasiveness in the community and raises concern regarding this highly virulent and resistant clone.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
Little is known about local extinctions of finfish species in the most biodiverse marine ecosystem in the most marine biodiverse and anthropogenically threatened region on Earth. This paper examines coral reef associated finfish species that disappeared in the catches around the island of Bohol over the period 1950 to 2007, based on the only available data, namely traditional ecological knowledge. Generalized least squares (GLS) tests showed steep declines to zero among species formerly recorded in catches. Finfish species recommended as priority for further monitoring based on life history and disappearances in fish catch are giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) and African pompano (Alectis ciliaris). Twenty out of the 21 species that disappeared from catches were moderate to very large-bodied, six were slow-growing fish and four were late-maturing fish. Species of large body size and subject to high fishing pressure may be particularly vulnerable. Traditional ecological knowledge when applied to population dynamics studies can add value to development of new monitoring methods. This knowledge can moreover inform the prioritization of species for fisheries assessment and conservation action.
The challenges to live in the open water and the diversity of habitats in the marine environments
prompts phytoplankton to devise strategies which often involve production of toxins
by Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) and rapid production of metabolites from non-toxic precursor.
The functional response of the predator is described by Holling type IV. We investigate wave phenomena
and non-linear non-equilibrium pattern formation in a phytoplankton-zooplankton system
with Holling type IV functional response. Type IV functional response yields to type II response
in the event of large immunity from or tolerance of prey. It has been found that the Wave of Chaos
(WoC) is still effective mechanism for the propagation of chaotic dynamics in predation and competitive
systems. Fish predation has a significant role in the temporal evolution of spatial patterns
of phytoplankton-zooplankton system. From a field ecologist's perspective, it is not only important
to know the stable stationary patterns of an evolving phytoplankton-zooplankton system, but
also to know at what point of time these observations are carried out. This has implications for
J. P. Singh, Diagnostics Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), Mississippi State University, USA,
F. Y. Yueh, Diagnostics Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), Mississippi State University, USA,
V. N. Rai, Diagnostics Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL), Mississippi State University, USA,
R. Harmon, US Army Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, USA,
S. Beaton, ADA Technologies, Inc., USA,
P. French, ADA Technologies, Inc., USA,
F. C. DeLucia, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA,
B. Peterson, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA,
K. L. McNesby, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA,
A. W. Miziolek, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has demonstrated its capability in quantitative determination of elemental composition in various samples in laboratories for decades. Recently, the interest in applying LIBS to detect various hazardous materials in the environment has grown rapidly. This chapter reviews some recent work related to environmental contamination studies using LIBS. Two portable LIBS instruments developed for field application are described in this chapter. The first instrument has been used by the US Army Research Laboratory to analyze the contaminated soil from Army sites and also for other geological applications. The other system was used by Mississippi State University to detect the resources conservation and recovery act (RCRA) metals in the off-gas of industrial plants and in liquids. The practical problems with LIBS application in environmental application such as calibration and sensitivity are also discussed in this chapter. The concept of using a new generation of broadband spectrometers to improve LIBS' capability in monitoring multiple emission lines of the same element to improve the detection limit and other signal enhancement techniques is addressed. The initial result of LIBS application in environmental problems is encouraging. We believe that the performance of LIBS in environmental application will continuously improve with the commercial development of various components in LIBS detection system.
LIBS is a chemical sensor technology with a capability for real-time in situ analysis that was first demonstrated in the laboratory over two decades ago and is now at the threshold of widespread commercialization.
This study assessed accuracy of (a) recording Vibrio
vulnificus infection on death certificates
and (b) International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 codes
V. vulnificus. Patients with
microbiologically confirmed V. vulnificus infection were identified
as part of co-ordinated
surveillance in four USA Gulf Coast states between 1989 and 1993. Of 60
deaths, 51 death
certificates were reviewed and V. vulnificus was recorded as the
immediate cause of death on 11
(22%). There was no ICD-9 code for V. vulnificus infection, thus
no patients had an ICD-9
code indicating V. vulnificus infection. Of 23 certificates where
V. vulnificus was recorded on the
death certificate, only 5 (22%) were coded for Gram-negative, septicaemia.
This study highlights the importance of teaching physicians how to provide
data on death certificates and the need for accurate ICD mortality codes.
A strain of Rhizobium isolated from the root nodule of lentil was caused to produce mutants and screened on a medium of pH 4·5. Five mutant colonies of Rhizobium were isolated from lentil which differed in growth over a pH range 4·5–7·5. Strains differed in their growth in acidic and calcareous soils and also in their effectiveness of N fixation.
Application of zinc to six high-yielding rice varieties in calcareous soils produced significantly higher grain yield and interactions between varieties and Zn levels were significant. Yields of varieties IR 20, Jaya, Sita and Jayanti at 2.5 and 5.0 ppm Zn were similarly affected, but Archana produced significantly higher grain yield at 5 ppm Zn than at 2.5 ppm. Effects of Zn on straw yield were similar. Zn application invariably resulted in a higher Zn concentration in plants at all stages of growth and in grain in all varieties. Maximum Zn contents were observed at the tillering stage and minimum at harvest.
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