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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
In the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center, patients colonized or infected with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are placed in contact isolation until they are deemed “decolonized,” defined as having 3 consecutive perirectal swabs negative for VRE. Some decolonized patients later develop recurrent growth of VRE from surveillance or clinical cultures (ie, “recolonized”), although that finding may represent recrudescence or new acquisition of VRE. We describe the dynamics of VRE colonization and infection and their relationship to receipt of antibiotics.
In this retrospective cohort study of patients at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, baseline characteristics were collected via chart review. Antibiotic exposure and hospital days were calculated as proportions of VRE decolonized days. Using survival analysis, we assessed the relationship between antibiotic exposure and time to VRE recolonization in a subcohort analysis of 72 decolonized patients.
In total, 350 patients were either colonized or infected with VRE. Among polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive, culture (Cx)-negative (PCR+/Cx−) patients, PCR had a 39% positive predictive value for colonization. Colonization with VRE was significantly associated with VRE infection. Among 72 patients who met decolonization criteria, 21 (29%) subsequently became recolonized. VRE recolonization was 4.3 (P = .001) and 2.0 (P = .22) times higher in patients with proportions of antibiotic days and antianaerobic antibiotic days above the median, respectively.
Colonization is associated with clinical VRE infection and increased mortality. Despite negative perirectal cultures, re-exposure to antibiotics increases the risk of VRE recolonization.
GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
The treatment gap between the number of people with mental disorders and the number treated represents a major public health challenge. We examine this gap by socio-economic status (SES; indicated by family income and respondent education) and service sector in a cross-national analysis of community epidemiological survey data.
Data come from 16 753 respondents with 12-month DSM-IV disorders from community surveys in 25 countries in the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. DSM-IV anxiety, mood, or substance disorders and treatment of these disorders were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
Only 13.7% of 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI cases in lower-middle-income countries, 22.0% in upper-middle-income countries, and 36.8% in high-income countries received treatment. Highest-SES respondents were somewhat more likely to receive treatment, but this was true mostly for specialty mental health treatment, where the association was positive with education (highest treatment among respondents with the highest education and a weak association of education with treatment among other respondents) but non-monotonic with income (somewhat lower treatment rates among middle-income respondents and equivalent among those with high and low incomes).
The modest, but nonetheless stronger, an association of education than income with treatment raises questions about a financial barriers interpretation of the inverse association of SES with treatment, although future within-country analyses that consider contextual factors might document other important specifications. While beyond the scope of this report, such an expanded analysis could have important implications for designing interventions aimed at increasing mental disorder treatment among socio-economically disadvantaged people.
This study sought to identify trajectories of DSM-IV based internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) problem scores across childhood and adolescence and to provide insight into the comorbidity by modeling the co-occurrence of INT and EXT trajectories. INT and EXT were measured repeatedly between age 7 and age 15 years in over 7,000 children and analyzed using growth mixture models. Five trajectories were identified for both INT and EXT, including very low, low, decreasing, and increasing trajectories. In addition, an adolescent onset trajectory was identified for INT and a stable high trajectory was identified for EXT. Multinomial regression showed that similar EXT and INT trajectories were associated. However, the adolescent onset INT trajectory was independent of high EXT trajectories, and persisting EXT was mainly associated with decreasing INT. Sex and early life environmental risk factors predicted EXT and, to a lesser extent, INT trajectories. The association between trajectories indicates the need to consider comorbidity when a child presents with INT or EXT disorders, particularly when symptoms start early. This is less necessary when INT symptoms start at adolescence. Future studies should investigate the etiology of co-occurring INT and EXT and the specific treatment needs of these severely affected children.
Nanostructures offer the opportunity to control the vibrational properties of via the scattering of phonons due to boundaries and mass disorder as well as through changes in the phonon dispersion due to spatial confinement. Advances in understanding these effects have the potential to lead to thermoelectrics with an improved figure of merit by lowering the thermal conductivity and to provide insight into electron-phonon scattering rates in nanoelectronics. Characterizing the phonon population in nanomaterials has been challenging because of their small volume and because optical techniques probe only a small fraction of reciprocal space. Recent developments in x-ray scattering now allow the phonon population to be evaluated across all of reciprocal space in samples with volumes as small as several cubic micrometers. We apply this approach, synchrotron x-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS), to probe the population of phonons within a Si/SiGe/Si trilayer nanomembrane. The distributions of scattered intensity from Si/SiGe/Si trilayer nanomembranes and Si nanomembranes with uniform composition are qualitatively similar, with features arising from the elastic anisotropy of the diamond structure. The TDS signal for the Si/SiGe/Si nanomembrane, however, has higher intensity than the Si membrane of the same total thickness by approximately 3.75%. Possible origins of the enhancement in scattering from SiGe in comparison with Si include the larger atomic scattering factor of Ge atoms within the SiGe layer or reduced phonon frequencies due to alloying.
The Perth Astronomy Research Group (PARG), consisting of members from Curtin University of Technology, Perth Observatory and the University of Western Australia, is in the process of developing an automated supernova search system, using the 61-cm Lowell-Perth reflector, a CCD camera and an 80386-based computer for image analysis. Computer control of the telescope and dome, a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CCD camera, and modified VISTA image analysis software will be completed in late 1990, allowing initial semi-automatic searching of external galaxies, together with CCD photometry of flare stars and newly discovered supernovae. Full-scale automation will be introduced subsequently, in collaboration with the Berkeley group. This paper describes the project, and reports on its current status.
Many instruments have been developed and validated to assess the stigma associated with mental disorders and its various domains across different populations. To our knowledge, the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS) is the only validated questionnaire to analyse the presence of reported and intended stigmatising/discriminatory behaviours towards people with mental health problems in the general population. The aims of the study presented herein are to translate and validate the RIBS in Italian language and to adapt it to the Italian socio-cultural background (RIBS-I).
The RIBS considers reported and intended behaviours across four different domains: (1) living with, (2) working with, (3) living nearby and (4) continuing a relationship with someone with a mental health problem. The validation process included four phases: (1) translation/back translation of the questionnaire from English to Italian and vice versa; (2,3) face validity and reliability of RIBS-I; (4) description of model fit through confirmatory factor analysis. The questionnaire was administered to a sample of the general public via distribution in public places such as shopping centres, markets, squares, cinemas and other gathering places. Questionnaires were administered by trained mental health professionals.
A total of 447 lay respondents were recruited. The mean age was 38.08 (s.d. = ±14.74) years. Fifty-seven per cent of the sample (n = 257) were female. The Cronbach alpha of RIBS-I was 0.83. All indices of model fit were above the reference values: Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) = 0.987 (GFI > 0.9); Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI) = 0.975 (AGFI > 0.9); Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.994 (CFI > 0.9); and Root-Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.023 (RMSEA < 0.05). The χ2 = 23.60 (df = 19; p = 0.21) and χ2/df = 1.24 supported the model.
The RIBS-I demonstrated good psychometric properties and it can be considered a useful tool to: (1) assess stigmatising (actual or potential) behaviours in the general population; (2) test the efficacy of anti-stigma campaigns and actions; (3) design further studies to better understand the relationship between the three different components of stigmatisation: knowledge, attitudes and behaviours.
There is increasing evidence that hyperenergetic diets have an impact on memory in rodents. However, it is largely unknown how diets, such as a cafeteria diet (CD), that mimic a Western-type diet act on learning and memory, in particular when fed during early stages of development. Here, we fed lactating dams a CD and exposed both male and female offspring to a novel object discrimination (NOD) task, a two-trial test of recognition memory in which rats exposed to two identical objects during a training/familiarisation trial can discriminate a novel from a familiar object during the subsequent choice trial. The choice trial was performed following inter-trial interval (ITI) delays of up to 4 h. Maternal diet did not have an impact on exploration of the objects by either sex during the familiarisation trial. Control males discriminated the novel from the familiar object, indicating intact memory with an ITI of 1 h, but not 2 or 4 h. The CD delayed this natural forgetting in male rats such that discrimination was also evident after a 2 h ITI. In contrast, control females exhibited discrimination following both 1 and 2 h ITI, but the CD impaired performance. In summary, the present study shows that maternal exposure to the CD programmes NOD in the adult. In better-performing females, dietary programming interferes with NOD, whereas NOD was improved in males after lactational CD feeding.
People who inject drugs are vulnerable to infections and injuries at injection sites, but these have rarely been studied in those injecting image- and performance-enhancing drugs (IPEDs). This study examined the factors associated with reported symptoms of injection site infections and injuries in IPED injectors. Of the 366 male IPED injectors surveyed, 42% reported ever having redness, swelling and tenderness (36% in the preceding year), and 6·8% had ever had an abscess or open wound at an injection site. Having these symptoms was associated with a range of factors related to drug use and healthcare utilization. One sixth (17%) of those reporting redness, tenderness and swelling had ever sought treatment, as had the majority (76%) of those reporting an abscess, sore or open wound. Most common sources of advice were emergency clinics and General Practitioners. Interventions are needed to support access to appropriate injecting equipment and provide targeted harm reduction advice.
Multi-functionalization of catalytically-active nanomaterials provides a valuable tool for enhancing reaction yield by shifting reaction equilibrium, and potentially also by adjusting reaction-diffusion kinetics. For example, multi-functionalization of mesoporous silica to make the interior pore surface hydrophobic can enhance yield in dehydration reactions. Detailed molecular-level modeling to describe the pore environment, as well as the reaction and diffusion kinetics is challenging, although we briefly discuss current strategies. Our focus, however, is on coarse-grained stochastic modeling of the overall catalytic process for highly restricted transport within narrow pores (with single-file diffusion), while accounting for a tunable interaction of the pore interior with reaction products. We show that making the pore interior unfavorable to products can significantly enhance yield due to both thermodynamic and kinetics factors.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
This investigation describes preliminary results of in-situ analysis of zinc deposition within an ionic liquid electrolyte utilizing electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC AFM). From the AFM analysis, the morphology of the zinc deposition was analyzed by quantifying the surface roughness using height-height correlation functions. These results will be used to analyze the scattering data obtained from zinc deposition analysis utilizing an electrochemical ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (EC USAXS). The goal of this research is to link the early nucleation and growth behavior to the formation of detrimental morphologies.
Strategies are described for modeling the kinetics of non-equilibrium film growth during deposition of metals on quasicrystalline substrates. We review previous atomistic-level lattice-gas modeling and Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation for pseudomorphic (or commensurate) submonolayer growth based on a “disordered or irregular bond-network” (DBN) of neighboring adsorption sites. We describe extensions to treat strain effects and multilayer growth, and discuss a type of commensurate-incommensurate transition expected around 2-3 layers. We also describe a coarse-grained “step dynamics” modeling which tracks the dynamics of island edges in each layer rather than individual atoms. Step dynamics models can also include key aspects of the physics such as layer-dependent energetics, including quantum size effects, and strain effects.
SXP 1062 is an exceptional case of a young neutron star in a wind-fed high-mass X-ray binary associated with a supernova remnant. A unique combination of measured spin period, its derivative, luminosity and young age makes this source a key probe for the physics of accretion and neutron star evolution. Theoretical models proposed to explain the properties of SXP 1062 shall be tested with new data.