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A main objective of EPOS is to provide a valid multifactorial model for the prediction of psychosis. One major element of such a model should be the clinical state.
In a European multicentre study, persons fulfilling clinical criteria thought to indicate an increased risk for psychosis (PAR) were assessed amongst others with different psychopathological instruments covering the whole spectrum from basic symptoms to frank psychotic symptoms. Inclusion criteria comprised attenuated positive symptoms (APS), brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS), cognitive basic symptoms (CogDis) and a combination of family risk and reduced functioning (S&T).
246 PAR were included into the study, mostly by APS or CogDis. Analysis of demographical data showed a high amount of functional impairment, resulting e.g. in low mean GAF scores (51.0 ± 11.8 SD), and of non-psychotic axis-I disorders. In September 2006, the hazard rate for a conversion to psychosis was 15.3 at 12 and 20.0 at 18 months after baseline assessment. According to the inclusion criteria, the highest rate of conversion was observed among PAR with BLIPS. On a dimensional level, a low GAF score was among the best predictors of conversion.
The transition rates of EPOS were in line with recent studies. A first analysis of clinical data supports the notion that the functional state should be an inherent part of any set of clinical risk criteria. Further analysis will consider the contribution of single symptoms or symptom combinations and the impact of symptom duration.
Craving in negative emotional situations (negative craving) is commonly associated with relapse and heavy alcohol use. Elevated dynorphin levels were associated with negative emotions, while variations in the OPRK1 and PDYN genes encoding OPRK1 receptor and dynorphins were associated with alcohol dependence.
To investigate potential overlap in the genetic factors underlying, negative craving and alcohol dependence.
Examine the association of the negative craving and genetic variation in the OPRK1 and PDYN genes.
13 PDYN and 10 OPRK1 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), including those previously reported to be associated with alcohol dependence were genotyped in 196 alcohol dependent subjects. The raw scores of the negative subscale of Inventory of Drug Taking Situations (IDTS) were utilized as a quantitative measure of negative craving. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations after controlling for age and gender.
Gene-level haplotype testing demonstrated significant association of negative craving with variation in PDYN (p < 0.05) but not OPRK1 gene. The rs2281285 - rs199794 haplotype showed significant association (p = 0.0236) with negative craving, while rs2235749 - rs10485703 haplotype showed marginally significant association (p = 0.055). This replicates previous findings of association between these haplotypes and alcohol dependence. Negative craving was also associated with PDYN rs2281285 variant (p = 0.012) with estimated effect size of 6.95 (SE = 2.75). This new association finding was not significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 0.18).
Our findings support association of PDYN sequence variation with negative craving in alcohol dependent subjects. Future studies should investigate functional mechanisms of this association.
To examine the impact of appearance comparison behaviours, trait body dissatisfaction and eating pathology on women's state body dissatisfaction and engagement in disordered eating behaviours in daily life.
Using ecological sampling method (ESM), 116 women residing in Australia, completed a baseline questionnaire containing the trait-based measures, before being signalled by an iPhone app six times daily, for seven days, to self-report on their recent appearance comparison behaviours, current state body dissatisfaction and recent disordered eating behaviours.
Multi-level modelling revealed that upward comparisons (comparisons against more attractive individuals) elicited increases in state body dissatisfaction (β = 0.89, P < .001) and disordered eating behaviours (β = 0.29, P = .002). Contrastingly, downward comparisons (comparisons against less attractive individuals) elicited decreases in state body dissatisfaction (β = –0.31, P = .048) and, unexpectedly, increases in disordered eating behaviours (β = 0.46, P < .01). The frequency of appearance comparison engagement, regardless of whether it was upward or downward comparisons, was also predictive of increased disordered eating behaviours (β = 0.12, P < .001). In addition, eating pathology and trait body dissatisfaction were directly associated with higher state body dissatisfaction, and increased in disordered eating behaviours (all P < .001).
These findings highlight the general negative impact that appearance comparisons have on fluctuating states of body dissatisfaction and eating pathology, as well as illustrating how trait characteristics partially account for this volatility. These findings provide further information that may be used to inform eating disorder prevention and intervention efforts.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although the influence of trait internalization and state body satisfaction on appearance comparisons has been well documented, their interactive influence on comparison behaviours is unknown. Therefore, the present study thus tested a person X situation model in which both mood state and trait internalization interacted to predict engagement in upward comparisons.
One hundred and forty-eight women aged 18 to 40 completed baseline measures of trait internalization, and then completed via iPhone app an experience sampling phase in which they reported momentary experiences of mood and comparison behaviours at up to 6 random times daily for 7 days.
Multilevel analyses revealed that although upward comparisons were more likely for individuals who internalized the thin ideal (t = 3.27, P < .001), this effect was minimized in instances when a participant was satisfied with her appearance (t = –1.90, P = .031). Further exploratory analyses showed that state body satisfaction was a stronger predictor than trait internalization of comparison behaviours (R2 = .14 vs. R2 = .11) when the time lag between state body satisfaction and comparison event was less than 2 hours, but this pattern reversed as the time lag between state level predictor and outcome increased beyond 2 hours (R2 = .09 vs. R2 = .12).
Present findings suggest that bolstering one's body satisfaction in the moment may be as clinically important as reducing a client's interest in the thin ideal for alleviating occurrence of unhealthy body comparisons.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This chapter concerns developments in Catholic social teaching during the eventful pontificates of St. John XXIII (1958–63) and St. Paul VI (1963–78), including the work of the Second Vatican Council (1962–65). The period was one of fast-moving social, political, and economic change. Pope St. John continued a change in emphasis already underway in the Church’s understanding of political authority, moving further away from the sort of sacral authority emphasized still by Pius XI to an emphasis on the natural moral law. He also treated the phenomenon of socialization and continued an emphasis on the dignity of the human person and a full-throated embrace of human rights. This was continued by the Council and by Paul VI, who was increasingly concerned with development in the global south and the relationship between economic problems and political violence. This period also saw the application of the doctrine of the universal destination of goods not only to individual persons but to nations as well. Both popes and the council fathers worked to develop the tradition while grappling with seemingly intractable challenges posed by secularization in the developed world and poverty and violence in the developing world as well as the climax of the Cold War.
The common good (bonum commune) has, since antiquity, referred to the aim of social and political association, and was particularly prominent in medieval Christian political theology. Since St. John XXIII’s 1961 encyclical letter, Mater et magistra, ecclesiastical statements about social teaching have employed a formulation of the common good, usually in the version that appeared in the Second Vatican Council’s 1965 Pastoral Constitution for the Church in the Modern World, Gaudium et spes, as “the sum of those conditions of social life that allow social groups and their individual members relatively thorough and ready access to their own fulfillment.” This chapter discusses the origins and development of this formulation as well as the ways that it has been used in subsequent Catholic Social Teaching. While it has sometimes been interpreted as an “instrumental” account of the common good, the sources and uses of the notion suggest that it is the particularly modern political component of a fuller notion of the common good continuous with the tradition. In particular, the recent formulation is concerned to limit the power of the modern state and protect the dignity of the human person in the challenging conditions of political modernity.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To use a systematic and iterative process to develop and refine toolkits to support dissemination and implementation (D&I) research. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Participants included research staff from the Dissemination and Implementation Research Core (DIRC), a research methods core from the Institute of Clinical and Translational Science at Washington University in St. Louis, other D&I experts from the University, and national experts from the D&I field. This project used education design research methodology and a systematic and iterative process involving several phases. The first phase (preliminary research and initial development) consisted of analysis of the educational problem and its context, and led to the development of toolkit prototypes and plans for their implementation. In the second phase (development and formative evaluation), toolkits were iteratively evaluated with emphasis on content validity and consistency and effectiveness as perceived by the users. Finally, in the summative evaluation, the toolkits were evaluated based on their use as intended. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our team identified the target audience as DIRC customers and investigators from disciplines across the University, and found that resources for beginners to D&I were lacking. The team developed 8 toolkits: (1) Introduction to D&I; (2) How to develop D&I Aims; (3) D&I Designs; (4) Implementation Outcomes; (5) Implementation Organizational Measures; (6) Assessing Barriers and Facilitators; (7) D&I Designs; and (8) Guideline research. These prototypes were iteratively revised for content validity and consistency. Finally, each toolkit was evaluated by two national experts in D&I science, and further refined. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This systematic and cyclical process led to the development of 8 toolkits to support researchers in D&I science, which are now available on the DIRC Web site. This set the stage for development of new toolkits as additional needs are identified.
We report on the results of coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) and ptychography measurements of two individual core-shell-shell GaAs/(In,Ga)As/GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on patterned Si(111) substrate. CXDI at the axial GaAs 111 Bragg reflection was applied at different positions along the NW axis in order to characterize the NWs in terms of structural homogeneity along the radial directions. At each positon 3D reciprocal space maps have been recoded and inverted using phase retrieval algorithms. The CXDI were complemented by 2D ptychography measurements at GaAs 111 Bragg reflection probing the same NWs with respect to their structural homogeneity. Both methods provide structural homogeneity for NW1 and NW2 except at the bottom part of the NWs. In case of NW2 CXDI and ptychography show changes in the structure of the top part of the NW indicated by 60° rotation of the indicated three-fold rotational symmetry in the observed diffraction patterns and changes in the strain field reconstructed from ptychography.
Conjectures are given for Hilbert series related to polynomial invariants of finite general linear groups: one for invariants mod Frobenius powers of the irrelevant ideal and one for cofixed spaces of polynomials.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension in the emergency department (ED). Current established protocols (e.g. RUSH and ACES) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. Recently the SHoC Protocol was published, recommending 3 core scans; cardiac, lung, and IVC; plus other scans when indicated clinically. We report the abnormal ultrasound findings from our international multicenter randomized controlled trial, to assess if the recommended 3 core SHoC protocol scans were chosen appropriately for this population. Methods: Recruitment occurred at seven centres in North America (4) and South Africa (3). Screening at triage identified patients (SBP<100 or shock index>1) who were randomized to PoCUS or control (standard care with no PoCUS) groups. All scans were performed by PoCUS-trained physicians within one hour of arrival in the ED. Demographics, clinical details and study findings were collected prospectively. A threshold incidence for positive findings of 10% was established as significant for the purposes of assessing the appropriateness of the core recommendations. Results: 138 patients had a PoCUS screen completed. All patients had cardiac, lung, IVC, aorta, abdominal, and pelvic scans. Reported abnormal findings included hyperdynamic LV function (59; 43%); small collapsing IVC (46; 33%); pericardial effusion (24; 17%); pleural fluid (19; 14%); hypodynamic LV function (15; 11%); large poorly collapsing IVC (13; 9%); peritoneal fluid (13; 9%); and aortic aneurysm (5; 4%). Conclusion: The 3 core SHoC Protocol recommendations included appropriate scans to detect all pathologies recorded at a rate of greater than 10 percent. The 3 most frequent findings were cardiac and IVC abnormalities, followed by lung. It is noted that peritoneal fluid was seen at a rate of 9%. Aortic aneurysms were rare. This data from the first RCT to compare PoCUS to standard care for undifferentiated hypotensive ED patients, supports the use of the prioritized SHoC protocol, though a larger study is required to confirm these findings.