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Treatment options for Hepatitis C infection have greatly improved with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combinations achieving high cure rates. Nevertheless, the cost of this treatment is still high and access to treatment in many countries has been preferentially reserved for patients with more severe fibrosis (F3 and F4). In this French nationwide study, we investigated the epidemiological characteristics and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in treatment-naive patients with METAVIR fibrosis stages between F0 and F2 in order to identify patient profiles that became eligible for unrestricted treatment in a second period. Between 2015 and 2016 we collected data from nine French university hospitals on a total of 584 HCV positive patients with absent, mild or moderate liver fibrosis. The most represented genotypes were genotype 1b (159/584; 27.2%), followed by genotype 1a (150/584; 25.7%); genotype 3 (87/584: 14.9%); genotype 4 (80/584; 13.7%). Among genotype 4: 4a was predominantly encountered with 22 patients (27.5% of genotype 4). Genotypes 1b and 1a are currently the most frequent virus types present in treatment-naive patients with mild fibrosis in France. They can be readily cured using the available DAA. Nevertheless, non-a/non-d genotype 4 is also frequent in this population and clinical data on the efficacy of DAA on these subtypes is missing. The GEMHEP is the French group for study and evaluation of viral hepatitis on a national scale. Data collection on epidemiological and molecular aspects of viral hepatitis is performed on a regular basis in all main French teaching hospitals and serves as a basis for surveillance of these infections. Analysis and trends are regularly published on behalf of the GEMHEP group. Data collection was performed retrospectively over the 2015–2016 period, covering nine main university hospitals in France. A total of 584 hepatitis C positive patients were included in this study. Genotyping of the circulating viruses showed a high prevalence of genotypes 1b and 1a in our population. The epidemiology of hepatitis C is slowly changing in France, particularly as a consequence of the rise of ‘non-a non-d’ genotype 4 viruses mainly originating from African populations. More data concerning treatment efficacy of these genotypes is needed in order to guide clinical care.
A reanalysis of the prominence magnetic field measurements obtained by Leroy et al. (1983) indicates that only a small fraction of these prominences did not obey the chirality rules they discovered and that Martin et al. (1994) confirmed.
The magnetic field vectors derived from the Hanle effect measured in prominences during the ascending phase and maximum of Cycle 21 have been plotted on the corresponding synoptic maps of Meudon Observatory (e.g., Figure 2). Most of these measurements have been performed in a single line, He I D3. Our previous analysis of 2-line measurements have already proven that prominence magnetic fields have Inverse polarity (Bommier et al. 1994) and remain close to the horizontal plane (Bommier et al. 1986, 1994). We also found earlier that the field component along the filament axis shows a remarkable large scale pattern, especially at high latitudes (Leroy et al. 1983). Given the geometry of horizontal Inverse field, we reinvestigate this large scale organization through our complete set of observations (296 prominences). These new maps fully confirm and extend to medium latitudes the law of reversal of the axial field from one prominence band to the adjacent ones (see Figure 2). This behavior, together with the Inverse polarity pattern, gives a picture consistent with a North-South global field distorted by the differential rotation (see Figure 3).
We present an analysis of the properties of H i holes detected in 20 galaxies that are part of “The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey”. We detected more than 1000 holes in total in the sampled galaxies. The holes are found throughout the disks of the galaxies, out to the edge of the H i disk. We find that shear limits the age of holes in spirals. Shear is less important in dwarf galaxies which explains why H i holes in dwarfs are rounder, on average than in spirals. Shear is particularly strong in the inner part of spiral galaxies, limiting the lifespan of holes there and explaining why we find that holes outside R25 are larger and older. We proceed to derive the surface and volume porosity and find that this correlates with the type of the host galaxy: later Hubble types tend to be more porous. The size distribution of the holes in our sample follows a power law with a slope of aν ~ −2.9. Assuming that the holes are the result of massive star formation, we derive values for the supernova rate (SNR) and star formation rate (SFR) which scales with the SFR derived based on other tracers. If we extrapolate the observed number of holes to include those that fall below our resolution limit, down to holes created by a single supernova, we find that our results are compatible with the hypothesis that H i holes result from star formation.
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.
Since the Middle Ages, Africans have lived in Germany as slaves and scholars, guest workers and refugees. After Germany became a unified nation in 1871, it acquired several African colonies but lost them after World War I. Children born of German mothers and African fathers during the French occupation of Germany were persecuted by the Nazis. After World War II, many children were born to African American GIs stationed in Germany and German mothers. Today there are 500,000 Afro-Germans in Germany out of a population of 80 million. Nevertheless, German society still sees them as "foreigners," assuming they are either African or African American but never German.
In recent years, the subject of Afro-Germans has captured the interest of scholars across the humanities for several reasons. Looking at Afro-Germans allows us to see another dimension of the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century ideas of race that led to the Holocaust. Furthermore, the experience of Afro-Germans provides insight into contemporary Germany's transformation, willing or not, into a multicultural society. The volume breaks new ground not only by addressing the topic of Afro-Germans but also by combining scholars from many disciplines.
Patricia Mazon is Associate Professor in the Department of History at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Reinhild Steingrover is Assistant Professor in the Department of Humanities at the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester.
Real-time ultrasound data of backfat thickness, longissimus muscle depth and longissimus area were carried out on 335 pigs (164 gilts and 171 barrows) using the Pie Medical Scanner 200 equipped with an ASP-18 probe and 3·5 MHz to predict carcass lean content in positive stress Pietrain (TT) and negative stress Pietrain (CC or CT). They were given food ad libitum and slaughtered at an average age of 213 days and an average weight of 101 kg. The day before slaughter, longitudinal and transverse images were taken at the last rib. After slaughter, the lean meat content was estimated by a CGM (capteur gras-maigre) equipped with an 8-mm diameter Sydel probe. The carcass lean proportion was higher in homozygote TT than homozygote CC and heterozygote CT individuals (P < 0·05). Gilts had more lean meat than barrows (P < 0·05). The correlation between the lean meat proportion and ultrasound backfat thickness (UBFT) or ultrasound longissimus muscle depth (ULMD) respectively was moderate. The prediction of lean meat proportion using UBFT, ULMD and ULMA gave an R2 which varied from 0·35 to 0·79. Real-time ultrasound is a tool that could potentially be used to predict the composition of pig carcasses before slaughter particularly if measurements can be taken with a higher degree of accuracy than at present.
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