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Thirty-one accessions of Oryza glaberrima were evaluated to study the genetic variability, correlation, path, principal component analysis (PCA) and D2 analysis. Box plots depicted high estimates of variability for days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant in Kharif 2016, plant height, productive tillers, panicle length and 1000 seed weight in Kharif 2017. Correlation studies revealed days to 50% flowering, plant height, panicle length, number of productive tillers, spikelets per panicle having a high direct positive association with grain yield, while path analysis identified the number of productive tillers having the maximum direct positive effect on grain yield. Days to 50% flowering via spikelets per panicle, productive tillers and plant height via spikelets per panicle exhibited high positive indirect effects on grain yield per plant. PCA showed that a cumulative variance of 54.752% from yield per plant, days to 50% flowering, spikelets per panicle and panicle length, contributing almost all the variation of traits while D2 analysis identified days to 50% flowering and grain yield per plant contributing maximum to the genetic diversity. Therefore, selection of accessions with more number of productive tillers and early maturity would be most suitable for yield improvement programme. The study has revealed the utility of African rice germplasm and its potential to utilize in the genetic improvement of indica rice varieties.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has yielded new insights into the transmission patterns of healthcare facility-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI). WGS results prompted a focused diagnostic stewardship program, which was associated with a significant and sustained decrease in HO-CDI at large, urban hospital.
Allergic rhinitis is the most common form of non-infectious rhinitis, affecting 500 million people worldwide, with one-fifth of those affected living in the Indian subcontinent. The skin prick test is the most valuable test for detecting offending allergens, and can be helpful for patient education, allergen avoidance and immunotherapy planning.
The skin prick test was performed with 49 allergens in 486 patients who presented with symptoms of allergic rhinitis, and the allergen profile was studied.
Of the 486 allergic rhinitis patients, 335 (68.93 per cent) showed allergen positivity to the skin prick test. Dust mite was the most common allergen, with positive results in 44.65 per cent of cases.
The most common offending allergen in our study was the dust mite. Identification of specific allergens for a particular geographical area aids patient education and enables allergen-specific immunotherapy.
Soft lithographic printing techniques can be used to print nanoparticle dispersions with relative ease while allowing for a measureable degree of controllability of printed feature size. In this study, a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp was used to print multi-layered, porous, nanoparticle dispersions of titanium dioxide (TiO2), for use in a dye-sensitized solar cell application. The gelled patterns were then sintered and the surface of the printed sample was chemically analyzed.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the surface constituents of the printed sample. The presence of a secondary peak feature located approximately 2.8 eV above the high resolution O1s core level binding energy peak was attributed to a contamination layer. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) of the printed sample revealed the presence of vibrational modes characteristic of the asymmetric bond stretching of silica, located at approximate wavenumbers of 1260 and 1030 cm-1.
Soft lithographic techniques are a viable manufacturing technique in a number of disciplines and sintered nano-oxide dispersions are readily used as reaction centers in a number of technologies. The presence of a residual, bonded silicate contamination layer may preclude the soft lithographic printing of chemically active oxide surfaces.
Major depressive disorder is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning and reduced productivity, which represents a large part of the overall burden of depression.
To examine symptom-based and work functioning outcomes with combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment of major depressive disorder.
Employed patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder were treated with escitalopram 10–20mg/day and randomised to: (a) telephone-administered cognitive-behavioural therapy (telephone CBT) (n = 48); or (b) adherence-reminder telephone calls (n = 51). Outcomes included the Montgomery-åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), administered by masked evaluators via telephone, and self-rated work functioning scales completed online. (Registered at clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00702598.)
After 12 weeks, there were no significant between-group differences in change in MADRS score or in response/remission rates. However, participants in the telephone-CBT group had significantly greater improvement on some measures of work functioning than the escitalopram-alone group.
Combined treatment with escitalopram and telephone- administered CBT significantly improved some self-reported work functioning outcomes, but not symptom-based outcomes, compared with escitalopram alone.
Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) belong to an innovative third generation photovoltaic technology, which is demonstrating tremendous potential to become a revolutionary technology due to recent breakthroughs in fabrication cost. A seven-step quality improvement method is implemented to enhance process efficiency and effectiveness of the DSSCs. Lean Manufacturing’s 5S method successfully increased efficiency in all of the processes. Six Sigma’s DMAIC methodology is used to identify and eliminate each of the root causes of defects in the critical titanium dioxide deposition process. These optimizations resulted with the following significant improvements in the production process: 1. fabrication time of the DSSCs is reduced by 54 %; 2. fabrication procedures improved to the extent eliminated all critical defects 3. The yield of good cells increased from 17% to 90%.
The overarching goal of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) is to improve photovoltaic performance and their long-term stability for use in practical applications because of their simple fabrication technology at a reasonable cost. The focus of this paper is to achieve cell stability and also to improve solar energy conversion efficiency experimenting with different electrolytes. The electrolyte’s role is critical to sustain the DSS cell performance over time to instill cell stability. Four different electrolytes, Iodolyte R-150, AN-50, PN-50 and MPN-100, are experimented in this work for fabricating the dye-sensitized solar cells for studying both the stability and efficiency of the DSSCs.
The electrolyte selection was made using the following key electrolyte parameters; lower viscosity for easier injection into the cell, lower vapor pressure and higher boiling point to minimize electrolyte evaporation, wide redox window to generate sufficient donating electrons to the dye, lower cost and non-toxicity. Electrolytes with higher concentration of Iodolyte were chosen for this study to widen redox potential window. These are Iodide based redox electrolytes and are made with 100 mM of tri-iodide in 3-methoxypropionitrile. The results of this investigation revealed that the cell with Iodolyte R-150 electrolyte achieved improved performance having an efficiency of 10.2% when compared to the reference cell efficiency of 8.4% with Iodolyte R-50. These cells were stabilized over a time of 4 weeks. The fill factor of the cell changed about 10% and the internal resistance decreased from 6.7 to 4.3 Ω. The results of this experiment demonstrated reduced internal resistance, and improved fill factor contributed to higher cell efficiency and stability. The results of the work presented in this paper support the argument that electrolytes with higher Iodolyte concentration can enhance the cell efficiency and stability along with scaling down of the cell size.
The Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) has been regarded as the next-generation solar cell because of its simple and low cost fabrication process. The experiments for optimizing the cell efficiency were carried out in this work include varying the TiO2 layer thickness on the working electrode and determining the most favorable nanoparticle size in the TiO2 paste. The TiO2 electrode or working electrode was fabricated using screen printing technique with the Coatema tool with thicknesses ranging from ~20 to 66 μm. It was observed that both open circuit voltage and short circuit current were found to have measurable dependence on the TiO2 layer thickness. The open circuit voltage changed from 0.77 to 0.82 V and correspondingly the short circuit current also varied from ~19 to 23 mA/cm2 depending on the TiO2 layer thickness. Additionally, the cell with 40 μm TiO2 thickness showed 9.06% photo conversion efficiency compared to 6.4% and 8.5% efficiency obtained for the cells with 20 μm and 66 μm TiO2 thicknesses respectively. The second part of the experiment was conducted using three different nanoparticle sizes of 13 nm, 20 nm and 37nm in the TiO2 layer to identify optimum nanoparticle size by maintaining the TiO2 film thickness at 40 μm. The cell with 20 nm size nanoparticle, in combination with 40 μm TiO2 thickness showed 11.2% efficiency that is in par or slightly better than the efficiency value reported for the DSSC in the literature as of now. The work described in this paper showed best possible values for the TiO2 layer thickness and nanoparticle size in the TiO2 for obtaining improved cell efficiency of 11.2%.
Dengue is an emerging arboviral disease and currently poses the greatest arboviral threat to human health. In recent decades, there has been a substantial increase in dengue outbreaks in many parts of the world including India. We performed an in-depth investigation of a major dengue outbreak in Andhra Pradesh, southern India in 2007 by serology, virus isolation, RT–PCR and genotyping. The results revealed an unusual emergence of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) along with the prevailing DENV-3. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete envelope gene of 182 globally diverse DENV-4 isolates demonstrated the involvement of a unique clade of genotype I of DENV-4 in the outbreak. This study also demonstrated a clear shift in the dominant serotype from DENV-3 to DENV-4 in India. This is the first report regarding the molecular characterization of Indian isolates of DENV-4, which has the potential to be involved in future outbreaks.
Evaluations of molecular mechanisms of dietary plants with their active molecules are essential for the complete exploration of their nutritive and therapeutic value. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chicory (Cichorium intybus) salad leaves in inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and evaluated their role in modulating the key markers involved in insulin cell signalling and adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bioactivity-directed purification studies enlightened the additive effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) along with other caffeic acid derivatives present in methanolic extract of C. intybus (CME). Incubation of CME and CGA with 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly enhanced the 2-deoxy-d-3[H]-glucose uptake and inhibited adipogenesis through altering the expressions of insulin signalling and adipogenesis markers. Extending to an in vivo model, the effect of CME was also investigated on insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet with low streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of CME for 2 weeks reinstated the insulin sensitivity along with plasma metabolic profile. The present results demonstrate that the caffeoyl derivatives of chicory salad leaves show promising pharmacological effect on energy homoeostasis via PTP1B inhibition both in vitro and in vivo.
The relationship between chromosome pairing and chromosome fragmentation has been studied in a gene controlled mutant of pearl millet (2n = 14). Premeiotic mitosis, premeiotic cell development and early prophase I are normal without any fragments, which first appear at pachytene. The extent of fragmentation varies from zero to very extreme with two discrete classes of plants, namely those with partial fragmentation and those with multiple fragmentation. A quantitative analysis of bivalent distribution and the distribution of AI bridges in desynaptic and fragmented cells show all of them to be nonrandom events. We suggest that in cells showing partial fragmentation the bridges and fragments result from U-type exchanges at pachytene. The reduced frequency of AII bridges indicates relatively low sister chromatid reunion at pachytene. In multiple fragmented plants numerous minute fragments were seen from pachytene. Despite these anomalies most PMCs complete meiosis but subsequently abort at the pollen grain stage. The mutant gene also causes disturbances in the sequence of meiotic development in the ear and in the synchronous development of PMCs within an anther. It has no effect on the tapetum or on the physiological development of the anther.
The stability of Soret-driven thermosolutal convection in a shallow horizontal layer of a porous medium subjected to inclined thermal and solutal gradients of finite magnitude is investigated theoretically by means of a linear stability analysis. The horizontal components of these gradients induce a Hadley circulation, which becomes unstable when vertical components are sufficiently large. We employed a two-term Galerkin approximation for various modes of instability. The effect of the Soret parameter on the mechanism of instability of the thermosolutal convection is investigated. Results are presented for various values of the governing parameters of the flow. It is observed that the Soret parameter has a significant effect on convective instability and this is discussed.
The spotted pod borer Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is known for its economic importance throughout its geographical distribution because of its destructive nature to reproductive parts of several grain legume crops including pigeonpea. In view of the importance of the pest, the present study was carried out on the association of different morpho-chemical traits with resistance/susceptibility to M. vitrata at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India. Trichome length and density, sugars, proteins and phenols were found to be associated with resistance to M. vitrata in short-duration pigeonpea genotypes. Pod damage by M. vitrata on different short-duration pigeonpea genotypes in the field ranged from 5.8 to 68%. Laboratory studies showed less consumption of food and reduced larval and pupal weights of M. vitrata when reared on the resistant genotypes ICPL 98003 and ICPL 98008 indicating antibiosis effects of the genotypes. Trichome density on upper and lower surfaces of the leaf (390 and 452/9 mm2), and length (3.5 mm) and trichome density (442/9 mm2) and length (5.9 mm) on pods were found positively correlated with the resistant genotype ICPL 98003. High sugar content in flowers (22%) and pods (10.6%) was responsible for the susceptibility of ICPL 88034, while high phenol concentration in flowers (6.5%) and pods (9.3%) in ICPL 98003 was responsible for resistance. Protein content in pods was significantly higher (25.5%) in susceptible ICPL 88034 when compared with resistant ICPL 98003 (16.5%). Based on these results, ICPL 98003 and ICPL 98008 were categorized as highly resistant and ICPL 98012 as moderately resistant. This paper discusses the physico-chemical traits associated with resistance to M. vitrata in short-duration pigeonpea genotypes.
Host-plant resistance is one of the major components of integrated pest management programmes against the noctuid pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in chickpea. Survival and development of H. armigera on nine chickpea genotypes were compared using two food substrates, namely fresh leaves and pods, and artificial diets containing lyophilized leaf or pod powder of the same genotypes. Among the genotypes used, six showed different levels of resistance to H. armigera, while three were used as susceptible checks. Using leaves and pods, five of the resistant genotypes yielded lower larval weights compared to one of the susceptible checks used. Significant differences between four of the resistant and two of the susceptible genotypes were also observed when using artificial diets containing leaf or pod powder, but the rankings were different from that on the fresh leaves and pods. On both substrates, four resistant genotypes resulted in lower larval survival, pupation, adult emergence and fecundity when compared to one of the susceptible checks. A similar trend was also observed for larval survival and development when using F1 hybrids based on four of the resistant genotypes. Survival and development of H. armigera on the two food substrates, fresh leaves and pods and artificial diets with lyophilized leaf or pod powder, were highly correlated, suggesting that incorporation of lyophilized leaves or pods into the artificial diet can be used to assess antibiosis to H. armigera in chickpea.
There is evidence that health care providers located in communities with relatively large uninsured populations face financial difficulties because of low service demand and high levels of uncompensated care. Data on 4,920 physicians from the 2000–2001 Community Tracking Study Physician Survey and from 25,637 adults from the 2003 Community Tracking Study Household Survey were used to analyze whether the relative size of the local uninsured population is associated with the level of career satisfaction and the quality of care provided by physicians and to assess whether patient trust is associated with the level of community uninsurance. The results indicate that the proportion of uninsured adults in a given community is negatively related to physicians’ career satisfaction and the perceived quality of health care provided. Community uninsurance is also negatively related to patient trust in their doctor and positively related to whether insured patients believed that their doctor was influenced by rules from health insurance companies. Physicians in communities with relatively large uninsured populations may have lower career satisfaction and lower perceptions of the quality of care provided due to financial difficulties. Patients in these communities are also less likely to trust their physician.