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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
We have developed an x-ray synchrotron based strategy for determining the element-specific atomic-scale structure of crystalline interfaces. When combined with XPS and AFM we gain chemical sensitivity and nano-scale morphology. Using conventional X-ray standing wave (XSW) analysis (based on single-crystal Bragg diffraction), the hkl Fourier component for a x-ray fluorescence-selected atomic species is measured. By summing together several such hkl Fourier components, it is possible to directly generate a 3D, direct-space, 0.5 Å resolution, image of the atomic distribution with respect to the bulk crystal primitive unit cell. We have recently demonstrated this for the cases of bulk impurity atoms , cations adsorbed at the aqueous / oxide interface , metallic atoms at semiconductor surfaces , and oxide supported catalysts . This new model-independent XSW imaging approach proves to be very insightful for complex cases in which atoms occupy unknown multiple crystallographic sites. In comparison to direct-methods based on conventional diffraction, the Fourier inversion process for generating an XSW image is much simpler, since the hkl phase (as well as amplitude) of each Fourier component is directly measured. Based on these model-independent XSW atomic images, we then develop models to refine the data analysis into 0.05 Å resolved atomic lattice positions that are used to measure effects such as strain. As part of our procedure, we calibrate the XRF yields to achieve a quantitative measure of the occupation fraction (stoichiometry) as well as the occupation lattice site for each XRF detectable species. In separate XPS measurements, we correlate this structural information with the chemical state of the adsorbed species. We are now applying this method to ALD and MBE grown oxide/oxide, metal/oxide and oxide/semiconductor heteroepitaxial structures and observing how the atoms at the interface redistribute after oxidation and reduction processes. In combination with AFM we are also correlating the atomic-scale and nano-scale structure of metal nanocrystals grown on oxide surfaces. Future directions include microbeam in situ real-time studies of growth and ferroelectric polarity switching. L. Cheng, P. Fenter, M. J. Bedzyk, N. C. Sturchio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 255503-1 (2003). Z. Zhang, P. Fenter, L. Cheng, N. C. Sturchio, M. J. Bedzyk, M. L. Machesky, D. J. Wesolowski, Surf. Sci. Lett., 554(2-3) L95 (2004). A.A. Escuadro, D.M. Goodner, J.S. Okasinski, M.J. Bedzyk, Phys. Rev. B, 70 235416-1-7 (2004).. C.-Y. Kim, J.W. Elam, M. J. Pellin, D.K. Goswami, S. T. Christensen, M. C. Hersam, P. C. Stair, M. J. Bedzyk, J. Phys Chem. B (in press) (2006).
This study of loneliness across adult lifespan examined its associations with sociodemographics, mental health (positive and negative psychological states and traits), subjective cognitive complaints, and physical functioning.
Analysis of cross-sectional data
340 community-dwelling adults in San Diego, California, mean age 62 (SD = 18) years, range 27–101 years, who participated in three community-based studies.
Loneliness measures included UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3 (UCLA-3), 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Isolation Scale, and a single-item measure from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Other measures included the San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE) and Medical Outcomes Survey- Short form 36.
Seventy-six percent of subjects had moderate-high levels of loneliness on UCLA-3, using standardized cut-points. Loneliness was correlated with worse mental health and inversely with positive psychological states/traits. Even moderate severity of loneliness was associated with worse mental and physical functioning. Loneliness severity and age had a complex relationship, with increased loneliness in the late-20s, mid-50s, and late-80s. There were no sex differences in loneliness prevalence, severity, and age relationships. The best-fit multiple regression model accounted for 45% of the variance in UCLA-3 scores, and three factors emerged with small-medium effect sizes: wisdom, living alone and mental well-being.
The alarmingly high prevalence of loneliness and its association with worse health-related measures underscore major challenges for society. The non-linear age-loneliness severity relationship deserves further study. The strong negative association of wisdom with loneliness highlights the potentially critical role of wisdom as a target for psychosocial/behavioral interventions to reduce loneliness. Building a wiser society may help us develop a more connected, less lonely, and happier society.
Focused and results-based, this important board review title covers everything that residents need to know when preparing for their Anesthesiology BASIC exam. Written by residents familiar with the exam, its use of bullet points and illustrations enables effective learning and efficient exam preparation. Providing a comprehensive review of all exam topics, the guide uses a clear and focused note-taking style to present 'high-yield' information, enabling efficient study techniques. Bullet points and short paragraphs feature to help rapid understanding, with margin space provided to annotate and add further notes. The helpful format ensures that all exam preparation, including notes from question banks, can be kept in this 'one-stop' review book. Mirroring the BASIC exam requirements, this book covers clinical anesthetic practice, pharmacology, physiology, anatomy, and anesthesia equipment and monitoring. Written by residents for residents, it is an essential preparation resource for the Anesthesiology BASIC exam.