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Self-assembly, a process in which molecules, polymers, and particles are driven by local interactions to organize into patterns and functional structures, is being exploited in advancing silicon electronics and in emerging, unconventional electronics. Silicon electronics has relied on lithographic patterning of polymer resists at progressively smaller lengths to scale down device dimensions. Yet, this has become increasingly difficult and costly. Assembly of block copolymers and colloidal nanoparticles allows resolution enhancement and the definition of essential shapes to pattern circuits and memory devices. As we look to a future in which electronics are integrated at large numbers and in new forms for the Internet of Things and wearable and implantable technologies, we also explore a broader material set. Semiconductor nanoparticles and biomolecules are prized for their size-, shape-, and composition-dependent properties and for their solution-based assembly and integration into devices that are enabling unconventional manufacturing and new device functions.
The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to develop technologies that are best able to serve humanity. This will require advancements that go beyond the basic components of general intelligence. The term “intelligence” does not best represent the technological needs of advancing society, because it is “wisdom”, rather than intelligence, that is associated with greater well-being, happiness, health, and perhaps even longevity of the individual and the society. Thus, the future need in technology is for artificial wisdom (AW).
We examine the constructs of human intelligence and human wisdom in terms of their basic components, neurobiology, and relationship to aging, based on published empirical literature. We review the development of AI as inspired and driven by the model of human intelligence, and consider possible governing principles for AW that would enable humans to develop computers which can operationally utilize wise principles and result in wise acts. We review relevant examples of current efforts to develop such wise technologies.
AW systems will be based on developmental models of the neurobiology of human wisdom. These AW systems need to be able to a) learn from experience and self-correct; b) exhibit compassionate, unbiased, and ethical behaviors; and c) discern human emotions and help the human users to regulate their emotions and make wise decisions.
A close collaboration among computer scientists, neuroscientists, mental health experts, and ethicists is necessary for developing AW technologies, which will emulate the qualities of wise humans and thus serve the greatest benefit to humanity. Just as human intelligence and AI have helped further the understanding and usefulness of each other, human wisdom and AW can aid in promoting each other’s growth
Hypocalcaemia is the most common complication after total or completion thyroidectomy. This study assesses recent evidence on predictive factors for post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia in order to identify the patients affected and aid prevention.
Two authors independently assessed articles and extracted data to provide a narrative synthesis. This study was an updated systematic search and narrative review regarding predictors of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia using the Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Cinahl databases. Results were limited to papers published from January 2012 to August 2019.
Sixty-three observational studies with a total of 210 401 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median incidence was 27.5 per cent for transient biochemical hypocalcaemia, 12.5 per cent for symptomatic hypocalcaemia and 2.2 per cent for permanent hypocalcaemia. The most frequent statistically significant predictor of hypocalcaemia was peri-operative parathyroid hormone level. Symptomatic hypocalcaemia and permanent hypocalcaemia were seen more frequently in patients undergoing concomitant neck dissection.
Many factors have been studied for their link to post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia, and this study assesses the recent evidence presented in each case.
Novel commercially available software has enabled registration of both CT and MRI images to rapidly fuse with X-ray fluoroscopic imaging. We describe our initial experience performing cardiac catheterisations with the guidance of 3D imaging overlay using the VesselNavigator system (Philips Healthcare, Best, NL). A total of 33 patients with CHD were included in our study. Demographic, advanced imaging, and catheterisation data were collected between 1 December, 2016 and 31 January, 2019. We report successful use of this technology in both diagnostic and interventional cases such as placing stents and percutaneous valves, performing angioplasties, occlusion of collaterals, and guidance for lymphatic interventions. In addition, radiation exposure was markedly decreased when comparing our 10–15-year-old coarctation of the aorta stent angioplasty cohort to cases without the use of overlay technology and the most recently published national radiation dose benchmarks. No complications were encountered due to the application of overlay technology. 3D CT or MRI overlay for CHD intervention with rapid registration is feasible and aids decisions regarding access and planned angiographic angles. Operators found intraprocedural overlay fusion registration using placed vessel guidewires to be more accurate than attempts using bony structures.
Alterations in redox modulation are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). MicroRNAs are targeted regulators of gene expression.
Objectives and aims
We aimed to examine if microRNAs that target redox modulators can discriminate between BD and healthy controls.
Data from brains of individuals with and without BD were obtained from Array Collection datasets. MicroRNAs targeting redox modulators were assessed for their ability to discriminate BD from the control group using machine-learning algorithms. Methylation of microRNAs, expression of their transcription factors and redox targets were assessed with ANCOVA with FDR correction. For validation, we acquired plasma samples belonging to 2 families of individuals with and without BD (n = 9). Plasma microRNAs were sequenced using the Ion Total RNA Sequencing Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and microRNAs identified from the in silico analysis were examined in the validation dataset.
We identified 5 miRNAs (hsa-miR-299, hsa-miR-125a, hsa-miR-145, hsa-miR-30b, hsa-miR424) that were common in two of the four in silico datasets. Target genes glutathione peroxidase 4, ATP5A1, ATP5G1, NDUFS1, NDUFC2, and catalase were expressed at different levels between BD and the control group. Furthermore, our results showed that transcription factors CTCF and USF1 might control the expression of hsa-miR-145, while methylation differences were not found. Finally, hsa-miR-30b was significantly increased in the plasma of patients with BD compared to controls in the validation experiment.
Our study demonstrates that microRNAs may have an important role in the initiation of redox changes in BD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a primary sensor for autonomous vehicles to recognize surroundings. It detects near-infrared (NIR) light pulses, typically at 905nm, which is emitted and reflected by surrounding objects. Here, the fact of the matter is that conventional black or dark-tone cars with extremely low NIR reflection are hard to be detected by LiDAR and endanger the future highway. In this work, we propose to use platelet-shaped effect pigments with visible absorption and NIR reflectivity. Copper(Ⅱ) oxide and Silicon dioxide multilayer are theoretically investigated with different numbers of layers and thicknesses. The optimized structures appear various dark-tone colors with high NIR-reflectivity over 90%.
This study of loneliness across adult lifespan examined its associations with sociodemographics, mental health (positive and negative psychological states and traits), subjective cognitive complaints, and physical functioning.
Analysis of cross-sectional data
340 community-dwelling adults in San Diego, California, mean age 62 (SD = 18) years, range 27–101 years, who participated in three community-based studies.
Loneliness measures included UCLA Loneliness Scale Version 3 (UCLA-3), 4-item Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Isolation Scale, and a single-item measure from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale. Other measures included the San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE) and Medical Outcomes Survey- Short form 36.
Seventy-six percent of subjects had moderate-high levels of loneliness on UCLA-3, using standardized cut-points. Loneliness was correlated with worse mental health and inversely with positive psychological states/traits. Even moderate severity of loneliness was associated with worse mental and physical functioning. Loneliness severity and age had a complex relationship, with increased loneliness in the late-20s, mid-50s, and late-80s. There were no sex differences in loneliness prevalence, severity, and age relationships. The best-fit multiple regression model accounted for 45% of the variance in UCLA-3 scores, and three factors emerged with small-medium effect sizes: wisdom, living alone and mental well-being.
The alarmingly high prevalence of loneliness and its association with worse health-related measures underscore major challenges for society. The non-linear age-loneliness severity relationship deserves further study. The strong negative association of wisdom with loneliness highlights the potentially critical role of wisdom as a target for psychosocial/behavioral interventions to reduce loneliness. Building a wiser society may help us develop a more connected, less lonely, and happier society.