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To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
Agriculture in the Central Himalayan Region depends on the availability of suitable germplasm as well as natural conditions. Due to extreme weather conditions, food and nutrition security is a major issue for communities inhabiting these remote and inaccessible areas. Millets are common crops grown in these areas. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) is an important crop and forms a considerable part of the diet in this region. The aim of the present study was to explore, collect, conserve and evaluate the untapped genetic diversity of foxtail millet at the molecular level and discover variability in their nutritional traits. A total of 30 accessions having unique traits of agronomic importance were collected and molecular profiling was performed. A total of 63 alleles were generated with an average of 2.52 alleles per locus and average expected heterozygosity of 0.37 ± 0.231. Significant genetic variability was revealed through the genetic differentiation (Fst) and gene flow (Nm) values. Structure-based analysis divided whole germplasm into three sub-groups. Rich variability was found in nutritional traits such as dietary fibre in husked grains, carbohydrate, protein, lysine and thiamine content. The collected germplasm may be useful for developing nutritionally rich and agronomically beneficial varieties of foxtail millet and also designing strategies for utilization of unexploited genetic diversity for food and nutrition security in this and other similar agro-ecological regions.
Influenza A(H1N1) viruses of the 2009 pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm09) continue to cause outbreaks in the post-pandemic period. During January to May 2015, an upsurge of influenza was recorded that resulted in high fatality in central India. Genetic lineage, mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) gene and infection by quasi-species are reported to affect disease severity. The objective of this study is to present the molecular and epidemiological trends during the 2015 influenza outbreak in central India. All the referred samples were subjected to qRT–PCR for diagnosis. HA gene sequencing (23 survivors and 24 non-survivors) and cloning were performed and analyzed using Molecular Evolutionary Genomic Analyzer (MEGA 5·05). Of the 3625 tested samples, 1607 (44·3%) were positive for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, of which 228 (14·2%) individuals succumbed to death. A significant trend was observed in positivity (P = 0·003) and mortality (P < 0·0001) with increasing age. The circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was characterized as belonging to clade-6B. Clinically significant mutations were detected. Patients infected with the quasi-species of the virus had a greater risk of death (P = 0·009). This study proposes a robust molecular and clinical surveillance program for the detection and characterization of the virus, along with prompt treatment protocols to prevent outbreaks.
There are few data on excess direct and indirect costs of diabetes in India and limited data on rural costs of diabetes. We aimed to further explore these aspects of diabetes burdens using a clinic-based, comparative cost-of-illness study.
Persons with diabetes (n = 606) were recruited from government, private, and rural clinics and compared to persons without diabetes matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (n = 356). We used interviewer-administered questionnaires to estimate direct costs (outpatient, inpatient, medication, laboratory, and procedures) and indirect costs [absence from (absenteeism) or low productivity at (presenteeism) work]. Excess costs were calculated as the difference between costs reported by persons with and without diabetes and compared across settings. Regression analyses were used to separately identify factors associated with total direct and indirect costs.
Annual excess direct costs were highest amongst private clinic attendees (INR 19 552, US$425) and lowest amongst government clinic attendees (INR 1204, US$26.17). Private clinic attendees had the lowest excess absenteeism (2.36 work days/year) and highest presenteeism (0.06 work days/year) due to diabetes. Government clinic attendees reported the highest absenteeism (7.48 work days/year) and lowest presenteeism (−0.31 work days/year). Ten additional years of diabetes duration was associated with 11% higher direct costs (p < 0.001). Older age (p = 0.02) and longer duration of diabetes (p < 0.001) were associated with higher total lost work days.
Excess health expenditures and lost productivity amongst individuals with diabetes are substantial and different across care settings. Innovative solutions are needed to cope with diabetes and its associated cost burdens in India.
HERMES is a new high-resolution multi-object spectrograph on the Anglo Australian Telescope. The primary science driver for HERMES is the GALAH survey, GALactic Archaeology with HERMES. We are planning a spectroscopic survey of about a million stars, aimed at using chemical tagging techniques to reconstruct the star-forming aggregates that built up the disk, the bulge and halo of the Galaxy. This project will benefit greatly from the stellar distances and transverse motions from the Gaia mission.
In view of the mandate from the World Health Organization (WHO) for developing novel drug candidates against human lymphatic filariasis, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors are explored as potential antifilarial agents. The in vitro biological evaluation of an in-house library of 12 diverse antifolate compounds with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine and 2,4-diamino-s-triazine structural features against Brugia malayi is reported. To confirm the DHFR inhibitory potential of these compounds, reversal studies using folic acid and folinic acid were undertaken. Inhibition of DHFR can induce apoptosis; in this light, preliminary evidence of apoptosis by test compounds was detected using ethidium bromide–acridine orange staining and the poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition assay. Among the evaluated compounds, 3 showed significant activity against both microfilariae and adult worms. The effects of 2 of these compounds were mostly reversed by folic acid, validating DHFR inhibitory activity. Partial reversal of the effect of 2 compounds by folinic acid and non-reversal of the effect of the third compound both by folic and folinic acids are discussed. This study opens new avenues for the discovery of lead molecules by exploiting the folate pathway against one of the major neglected tropical diseases, filariasis.
Due to the poor positive predictive value of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for gonorrhoea when applied to a low-prevalence setting, current guidelines recommend the use of supplementary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a different gene for confirmation of true positives in urogenital specimens. This study sought to standardize and evaluate performance of an in-house opa gene-based PCR assay for gonorrhoea compared to assays targeting the porA pseudogene and 16S rRNA gene. Four hundred samples (300 endocervical, 100 urethral swabs) from patients attending STD clinics in New Delhi, India were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the opa-based PCR were 100%, 97·9%, 89·5% and 100%, respectively. In females, the use of NAATs provided enhanced diagnosis of gonorrhoea.
Dengue is an emerging arboviral disease and currently poses the greatest arboviral threat to human health. In recent decades, there has been a substantial increase in dengue outbreaks in many parts of the world including India. We performed an in-depth investigation of a major dengue outbreak in Andhra Pradesh, southern India in 2007 by serology, virus isolation, RT–PCR and genotyping. The results revealed an unusual emergence of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) along with the prevailing DENV-3. Phylogenetic analysis based on complete envelope gene of 182 globally diverse DENV-4 isolates demonstrated the involvement of a unique clade of genotype I of DENV-4 in the outbreak. This study also demonstrated a clear shift in the dominant serotype from DENV-3 to DENV-4 in India. This is the first report regarding the molecular characterization of Indian isolates of DENV-4, which has the potential to be involved in future outbreaks.
Cd1-XZnXTe is one of the II-VI ternary semiconductor materials whose band gap can be tailored to any value between 1.48 eV to 2.26 eV as X varies from 0 to 1. It is promising material for high efficiency solar cells, switching and other optoelectronic devices. Cd0.4Zn0.6Te thin films have been deposited on ultra-clean glass substrates by screen printing method followed by sintering process. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature, single phase exhibiting wurtzite (hexagonal) structure with strong preferential orientation of grains along the (101) direction. The optical band gap of the films has been studied using absorption spectra by using double beam spectrophotometer. The dc conductivity of the films was measured in vacuum by two probe technique. The results of present investigation will be useful in characterizing the material Cd1-XZnXTe for its applications in photovoltaics. Sintering is a very simple and viable method compared to other cost intensive methods.
In this work, TOPO(tri-octyl phosphine oxide)/TOP(tri-octyl phosphine)-capped cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QD's) of varied sizes (5–9 nm) prepared at different input Cd:Se precursor ratio's (1:1–2:1) using chemical route were dispersed in conducting polymer matrices viz poly[2-methoxy,5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) respectively. The properties of polymer:CdSe nanocomposites are evaluated by means of photoluminescence (PL), UV-VIS absorption, Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques respectively. The emission and structural properties of polymer-CdSe nanocomposites are found to be dependent on their morphology. The better quality of smallest sized CdSe QD's (size ~5 nm) in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer, leads to higher photostability of P3HT:CdSe QD's nanocomposites as compared to that for corresponding MEH-PPV:CdSe nanocomposites, thus making it as an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells application.
Following the fluid model for the response of electrons, it is shown that a high-power whistler wave decays efficiently into a lower hybrid or a Bernstein mode and a scattered whistler wave in a homogeneous plasma. The thresholds for these channels of stimulated scattering are generally low. However, the channel of scattering involving lower hybrid waves is possible only for scattering angles exceeding ¼π. The other channel involving Bernstein modes is possible at shorter scattering angles but the growth rate is relatively small and the threshold is high.
Radiation resistant ferrite materials have potential applications in space station. Mg-Mn spinel ferrite was choosen for this study because of its radiation resistance and potential for use as an insulator in radiation environments. The radiation damage expected in these environments can be quickly and conveniently simulated using ion irradiation. The results of swift heavy ion irradiation induced modifications in the magnetization behavior of the Mg-Mn ferrite nanoparticles have been investigated using 100 MeV Ni8+ ion irradiation. To ensure the singlephase spinel structure of the system powder x-ray diffraction patterns has been performed. The powder samples were irradiated at three different fluences in the range 1×1012-5×1013 ions/cm2. Isothermal dc magnetization studies have been performed using SQUID and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) on the pristine as well as on the irradiated samples at 20 K and 300 K. With irradiation saturation magnetization remains almost constant with ions irradiation. The coercivity values of the materials decreased about 5% with the fluence 1×1013 ions/cm2 as compare to the pristine nanoparticles. The results have been explained on the basis of the existence of surface defects produced by swift heavy ions, which generate orientational disorder of surface spins. The behavior of saturation magnetization with irradiations makes these nanoparticles suitable for memory devices in the space research.
A LiNbO3/ZnO multilayer with a preferred c-axis orientation normal to the plane of the substrate was grown on glass and SiO2/Si substrates by laser ablation. The piezoelectric activity in as-deposited films was demonstrated using a novel approach to the atomic force microscope. In the presence of an in-plane, low-frequency (0.1–5 Hz) alternating current electric field, we monitored and imaged the induced piezoelectric response normal to the film plane between two electrodes.
Background. We sought to identify personal factors that placed people at risk during an epidemic of medically unexplained illness in a Bhutanese refugee camp in southeastern Nepal.
Methods. We conducted a case–control study, involving 68 cases and 66 controls. Caseness was defined as experiencing at least one attack of medically unexplained fainting or dizziness during the time of the epidemic. We performed hierarchical logistic regression analysis to identify significant predictors of case status.
Results. In terms of Western psychiatric constructs, the illness involved somatoform symptoms of both acute anxiety and dissociation. Sixty per cent reported visual and 28% reported auditory hallucinatory experiences. Cases and controls were similar on all demographic variables, school performance, number of attacks witnessed and psychopathology before the onset of the epidemic. Recent loss, early loss, childhood trauma and pulse-rate were predictors of case status.
Conclusion. We identified trauma, early loss and, especially, recent loss as predictors of attacks during medically unexplained epidemic illness in a Bhutanese refugee community.
We successfully deposited high-quality TiN films on c-plane sapphire by using the pulsed laser deposition technique. TiN grew on sapphire with two in-plane epitaxial relationships: (111)TiN//(0001)sapphire and TiN//sapphire or (111)TiN// (0001)sapphire and TiN//sapphire. The TiN unit cell showed a ±30° in-plane rotation for sapphire. The misfit between the TiN film and the sapphire substrate was calculated by using the near coincidence site lattice approach. The deposited films were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering or channeling spectrometry, electrical, and spectrophotometric measurements. The dependence of the film's crystalline quality on the deposition temperature has been investigated. The full width half-maximum of the rocking curve of the TiN 111 peak was 0.2–0.3°. The minimum ion channeling was 5%, and the room temperature resistivity was as low as 13 μω cm.
Background. Comparatively little is known about the long-term
natural history of depressive
disorders in the elderly living in the community. This is a follow-up of
a subsample of the
Continuing Health in the Community study random sample of the elderly population
Methods. The investigators followed up 120 cases of depression
identified by a semi-structured
interview schedule (GMS) for a period of 5 years. A similar number of other
subjects defined as
subcases of depression, other cases of mental illness and a random selection
of non-cases were also
Results. The 5-year outcome for the cases of depression was
worse than the outcome of the non-cases
(relative mortality risk of 2·1, 95% confidence interval 1·1
to 3·9). Thirty-four per cent of the
cases of depression died and 28% had dropped out during the follow-up.
Of the 46 cases of
depression who had a complete follow-up, 22% recovered from their symptoms,
30% were found
to be AGECAT cases at one of the three follow-up waves, 24% were AGECAT
cases at two of the
three follow-up waves and the remaining 24% were AGECAT cases at each follow-up
per cent of the surviving cases of depression were organic cases at the
follow-up. Their anxiety co-morbid state and depression score were identified
as predictors of poor outcome.
Conclusion. The findings of this study indicate that depressive
disorders (most of which were
untreated) found in the elderly community have a poor prognosis.
We have investigated the influence of TiN growth temperature on the contact resistance in TiN/SiC and TiN/GaN heterostructures. Epitaxial TiN layers grown at temperatures above 600°C formed low resistance contacts to n-type 6H-SiC and GaN of 1.1× 10−3 Ωcm2 and 7.9 ×10−5 Ωcm2, respectively. Structural and electrical characterization of TiN thin films is discussed.