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To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
Ferroelectric single-crystal-architecture-in-glass is a new class of metamaterials that would enable active integrated optics if the ferroelectric behavior is preserved within the confines of glass. We demonstrate using lithium niobate crystals fabricated in lithium niobosilicate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation that not only such behavior is preserved, the ferroelectric domains can be engineered with a DC bias. A piezoresponse force microscope is used to characterize the piezoelectric and ferroelectric behavior. The piezoresponse correlates with the orientation of the crystal lattice as expected for unconfined crystal, and a complex micro- and nano-scale ferroelectric domain structure of the as-grown crystals is revealed.
Design and development of 2 kW, 3 dB tandem hybrid coupler for the frequency range of 155–225 MHz has been presented in this paper. The developed 3 dB coupler is to be used in a prototype of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) system of Tokamak, which has been developed to test the resilience of ICRF network during continuously variable RF load excursions. The 3 dB coupler divides the RF power between two antennae of the prototype and protects the RF source by coupling of reflected power to the isolated port. The developed coupler shows excellent coupling flatness of −3 ± 0.3 dB over 38% of fractional bandwidth and also provides voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) <1.3, isolation better than 32 dB and return loss better than 25 dB in full band. The presented work establishes a technique which can be useful for the development of high-power hybrid coupler in the range of high frequency (HF), very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF).
In this work, we present an oxygen-releasing insole to treat diabetic foot ulcers. The insole consists of two layers of polydimethylsiloxane: the top layer has selective laser-machined areas (to tune oxygen permeability) targeting the ulcerated foot region, while the bottom layer provides structural support and incorporates a chamber for oxygen storage. When loaded with a pressure of 150 kPa (average value for standing/walking), the insole is able to release oxygen at a rate of 1.8 mmHg/min/cm2. At lower sitting pressures, the delivery rate persists at 0.092 mmHg/min/cm2, raising the oxygen level to an optimal healing value (50 mmHg) for a 2 × 2 cm2 wound within 150 min.
Background: Recent advances in neurophysiological techniques have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of Huntington’s disease (HD). Studies of the motor cortical excitability and central motor pathways have shown variable results. Objectives: Our aims were to evaluate the cortical excitability changes in HD using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and correlate the changes with cognitive impairment. Methods: The study included 32 HD patients and 30 age- and gender-matched controls. The demographic and clinical profiles of the patients were recorded. All subjects were evaluated by TMS and resting motor threshold (RMT), central motor conduction time (CMCT), silent period (SP), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), and intracortical facilitation were determined. A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to all subjects. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.1±14.1 years, and that of controls 39.4±12.4 years (p=0.61). There was no significant difference in RMT and CMCT between the two groups. There was a mild prolongation of the contralateral SP in HD, but it was not significant. SICI was significantly reduced in HD (p<0.0001). A significant impairment in attention, verbal fluency, executive function, visuospatial function, learning, and memory was observed in HD patients. However, there was no correlation between cortical excitability changes and cognitive impairment. Conclusions: TMS is a valuable method of evaluating cortical excitability changes in HD. These patients have reduced SICI and significant impairment of cognition in multiple domains.
The burden of dengue virus infections increased globally during recent years. Though India is considered as dengue hyper-endemic country, limited data are available on disease epidemiology. The present study includes molecular characterization of dengue virus strains occurred in Hyderabad, India, during the year 2014. A total of 120 febrile cases were recruited for this study, which includes only children and 41 were serologically confirmed for dengue positive infections using non-structural (NS1) and/or IgG/IgM ELISA tests. RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing and evolutionary analyses were carried out to identify the circulating serotypes/genotypes. The data indicated a high percent of severe dengue (63%) in primary infections. Simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes and co-infections were observed for the first time in Hyderabad, India. In total, 15 patients were co-infected with more than one dengue serotype and 12 (80%) of them had severe dengue. One of the striking findings of the present study is the identification of serotype Den-1 as the first report from this region and this strain showed close relatedness to the Thailand 1980 strains but not to any of the strains reported from India until now. Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent.
We apply gravitational lensing statistics to: (1) place a limit on the cosmological constant (ΩΛ); (2) place a limit on the average red-shift (< z >) of gamma-ray bursters (GRBs); (3) investigate models of galaxy evolution to see how compatible these models are with lensing statistics. We also point out the sources of uncertainty in lensing statistics, leading to uncertainty in the results.
“Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)” mission on-board GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 and deployed in geostationery orbit to study the X-ray emission from solar flares with high spectral and temporal resolution. The SOXS consists of two independent payloads viz. SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload, and SOXS High Energy Detector (SHD) payload. The SLD consists of two solid state detectors Si PIN and CZT, which cover the energy range from 4-60 keV, while the SHD has NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) sandwiched phoswich detector that covers energy range from 20 keV to 10 MeV. We present very briefly the science objectives and instrumentation of SLD payload. After the successful In-orbit Tests (IOT), the first light was fed into SLD payload on 08 June 2003 when the solar flare was already in progress. We briefly present the first results from the SLD payload.
Genetic diversity and relationship of 92 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes from India and exotic collections were examined using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and phenotypic traits to identify new sources of diversity that could accelerate the development of improved wheat varieties better suited to meet the challenges posed by heat stress in India. Genetic diversity assessed by using 82 SSR markers was compared with diversity evaluated using five physiological and six agronomic traits under the heat stress condition. A total of 248 alleles were detected, with a range of two to eight alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content value was 0.37, with a range of 0.04 (cfd9) to 0.68 (wmc339). The heat susceptibility index was determined for grain yield per spike, and the genotypes were grouped into four categories. Two dendrograms that were constructed based on phenotypic and molecular analysis using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) were found to be topologically different. Genotypes characterized as highly heat tolerant were distributed among all the SSR-based cluster groups. This implies that the genetic basis of heat stress tolerance in these genotypes is different, thereby enabling wheat breeders to combine these diverse sources of genetic variability to improve heat tolerance in their breeding programmes.
Observations and analysis of solar flare activated ascending “Fountain type” prominence of 1 February 1979 are presented. This “Fountain” prominence rose to 180,000 km above the solar surface and gave rise to a number of ascending loops and helical structure. These “helicals” are clear manifestation of magnetic field configuration. From these observations it is shown that, as the “Fountain” prominence rises, it carries along with it the complex magnetic field which unfolds as the prominence material expands into distinct magnetic field lines. Several type III radio bursts were also seen associated with this event. No type II or IV radio emission was reported.
Forage sorghum is an important component of the fodder supply chain in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world because of its high productivity, ability to utilize water efficiently and adaptability to a wide range of climatic conditions. Identification of high-yielding stable genotypes (G) across environments (E) is challenging because of the complex G × E interactions (GEI). In the present study, the performance of 16 forage sorghum genotypes over seven locations across the rainy seasons of 2010 and 2011 was investigated using GGE biplot analysis. Analysis of variance revealed the existence of significant GEI for fodder yield and all eight associated phenotypic traits. Location accounted for a higher proportion of the variation (0·72–0·91), while genotype contributed only 0·06–0·21 of total variation in different traits. Genotype-by-location interactions contributed 0·02–0·13 of total variation. Promising genotypes for fodder yield and each of the associated traits could be identified effectively using a graphical biplot approach. The majority of test locations were highly correlated. A ‘Which-won-where’ study partitioned the test locations into two mega-environments (MEs): ME1 was represented by five locations with COFS 29 as the best genotype, while ME2 had two locations with S 541 as the best genotype. The existence of two MEs suggested a need for location-specific breeding. Genotype-by-trait biplots indicated that improvement for forage yield could be achieved through indirect selection for plant height, leaf number and early vigour.
As the need for smaller data storage devices in the market continues to grow, the study of new combinations of self-assembled magnetic nanoparticles/films is greatly needed. In this research, Fe50-Ni50 films were synthesized using a Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and physical properties measurement system (PPMS). Films were deposited from Fe-Ni alloy target (50%-50% composition), deposition was conducted in vacuum, at substrate temperatures varying from liquid nitrogen temperature -196°C to 600°C. The films were annealed in a vacuum chamber at 600°C for 1 hour. The study reveals that the substrate temperature has significant effect on the structure of the films and their magnetic properties. It was shown that additional thermal treatment improved the quality of films in terms of narrow grain size distribution. Magnetic properties were also found to improve significantly after post annealing process.
Due to the rapid advance of the emergence of resistant microorganisms to different antibiotics, there is a need to create new antimicrobial agents. It is possible that Nanotechnology has a great impact in this area since the nanoparticles can improve the antimicrobial effect of the antibiotics. In this study we used three different metal oxides nanoparticles, the MgO, ZnO and CuO. These nanoparticles were selected because their interactions leading to cell death and their optical properties. The aim of this study is to develop new methods that are more effective against resistance bacteria, developing antibacterial agents using different nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 10145), and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC BAA-1026). This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effects of a combination of nanoparticles together with different concentrations of three antibiotics, Gentamicin, Cephalexin and Co-Trimoxazole. The results showed that some nanoparticles are effective to inhibit growth in these microorganisms by increasing the effectiveness of the antibiotic. Therefore, the present study indicates that the combination of the nanoparticles with antibiotics may be applicable as a new antimicrobial agent.
The present work focuses on the synthesis and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of ZnxMg1-xO solid solutions. ZnxMg1-xO solid solutions were synthesized through the thermal decomposition of ZnMg-precursor synthesized in aqueous and ethanol solutions via a two-steps process. The antimicrobial activity of ZnxMg1-xO solid solution against E. coli was evaluated using the spread plate method in presence of ZnxMg1-xO powder of different contents of Zn species, ‘x’. The powder concentrations evaluated were 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm. Zn0.10Mg0.90O powders exhibited a bacterial growth inhibition between 38% and 100% when the powder concentration increased from 500 up to 1500 ppm, respectively. A decreasing trend was observed for x = 0.30 and above; the corresponding bacterial growth inhibition was 12%, 6%, and 5% when the particles concentration was, respectively, 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm. X-Ray diffraction analyses suggested the incorporation of Zn ions into the MgO lattice for ‘x’ values below 0.10, enhancing the antimicrobial activity; the formation of two isolated oxide phases observed at larger ‘x’ values (e.g. x = 0.30 and x = 0.50 Zn), could explain the detected inhibition of the corresponding antimicrobial activity.
This paper describes the organometallic synthesis of pure rhenium nanoparticles (Re NPs) and their characterization by a combination of state-of-the art techniques (TEM, HAADF-STEM, EDX, WAXS, EA, FT-IR). The Re NPs synthesis is achieved by reducing the [Re2(C3H5)4] complex in solution under a dihydrogen atmosphere and in the presence of hexadecylamine or polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilizing agents. The so-obtained Re NPs are monodisperse with a mean size of 1.1 nm (0.3) nm and display a spherical shape with a disordered hcp structure.
As a promising transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has recently attracted a lot of attention due to its graphene-liked two dimensional layer structure, which leads to potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the fabrication of mono- or few-layer MoS2 is limited to ether liquid exfoliation or CVD, and the chemical solution deposition is limited to ammonium thiomolybdate-based precursor. In this paper, hydrazine-based dimensional reduction technique is applied in the chemical solution deposition of MoS2 thin-film, and a larger area uniform thin-film is obtained from bulk powder MoS2. This solution-based process could be applied with a variety coating techniques and lead to wafer level MoS2 thin film production.