To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
GravityCam is a new concept of ground-based imaging instrument capable of delivering significantly sharper images from the ground than is normally possible without adaptive optics. Advances in optical and near-infrared imaging technologies allow images to be acquired at high speed without significant noise penalty. Aligning these images before they are combined can yield a 2.5–3-fold improvement in image resolution. By using arrays of such detectors, survey fields may be as wide as the telescope optics allows. Consequently, GravityCam enables both wide-field high-resolution imaging and high-speed photometry. We describe the instrument and detail its application to provide demographics of planets and satellites down to Lunar mass (or even below) across the Milky Way. GravityCam is also suited to improve the quality of weak shear studies of dark matter distribution in distant clusters of galaxies and multiwavelength follow-ups of background sources that are strongly lensed by galaxy clusters. The photometric data arising from an extensive microlensing survey will also be useful for asteroseismology studies, while GravityCam can be used to monitor fast multiwavelength flaring in accreting compact objects and promises to generate a unique data set on the population of the Kuiper belt and possibly the Oort cloud.
Doppler-effect laser equipment was successfully employed in Antarctica in 1969-70 to measure the rate of ice-sheet motion. The method is based on measuring differential beat frequency generated by the interaction of the direct pulse and its echo. A He-Ne laser with the wavelength of 6 328 Â was used in the 15th Soviet Antarctic Expedition. The paper gives detailed results of the measurements along with a description of the equipment used and of the observational procedures. A new modified version of the equipment was made ready for 1971-72 Antarctic season, and was used in the 18th Soviet Antarctic Expedition in the vicinity of Mirny station. New results are also discussed. Analysis of all available data makes it possible to believe that the movement of the ice sheet is irregular with occasional stops. The progressive motion of the ice sheet is accompanied by strain oscillations.
Die Gasentladung im Deuterium bei Stromstärken bis zu 700 tausend Ampere im magnetischen Längsfelde bis zu 12000 Oersted wurde untersucht. Die Einwirkung des Feldes auf den Verlauf der Entladung wurde festgestellt und eine Zunahme des Magnetfeldes im Innern der Entladungssäule entdeckt. Eine Bewertung der Plasmaleitfähigkeit und der Ionisierungszahl wird gegeben.
This paper is devoted to an experimental investigation of receptivity of a laminar swept-wing boundary layer due to scattering of free-stream vortices on localized (in the streamwise direction) surface vibrations. The experiments were conducted under completely controlled disturbance conditions by means of a hot-wire anemometer on a model of a swept wing with a sweep angle of 25°. Both the free-stream vortices and the surface vibrations were generated by disturbance sources; their frequency–wavenumber spectra were measured thoroughly. The free-stream vorticity vectors were directed perpendicular to the incident-flow velocity vector and parallel to the swept-wing-model surface. The linearity of the receptivity mechanism under investigation (in a sense that the corresponding receptivity coefficients are independent of the disturbances amplitudes) has been checked carefully. The main goal of this experiment was to estimate the vibration-vortex receptivity coefficients as functions of the disturbance frequency, spanwise wavenumber and vortex offset parameter. This goal has been attained. Being defined in Fourier space, the obtained receptivity coefficients are independent of the specific surface vibration shape and can be used for verification of various receptivity theories.
It is well known that the turbulent state of the atmosphere gives rise to fluctuations of the coefficient of light refraction. In astrometric observations these fluctuations produce the phenomenon of image motion which serves as the source of accidental errors of observations. The need for the study of the effect of atmospheric turbulence is documented in (G.Teleki, 1967) and others.
A plasma target for highly efficient neutralization of powerful negative ion beams is considered. The plasma is confined within a magnetic trap with multipole magnetic walls. It is proposed to use inverse magnetic mirrors to limit plasma outflow through the inlet and outlet holes in the trap. Using the particle-in-cell method, mathematical simulation of plasma dynamics in the trap has been performed. The estimates of plasma distribution and particle confinement efficiency in the region of the magnetic mirrors has been obtained. Simulation results were compared with experimental data.
This report summarizes epidemiological data on nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. NE cases identified in the period 1997–2013 were investigated in parallel with the hantavirus antigen prevalence in small rodents in the study area. A total of 13 930 NE cases were documented in all but one district of Tatarstan, with most cases located in the central and southeastern districts. The NE annual incidence rate exhibited a cyclical pattern, with the highest numbers of cases being registered once in every 3–5 years. The numbers of NE cases rose gradually from July to November, with the highest morbidity in adult males. The highest annual disease incidence rate, 64·4 cases/100 000 population, was observed in 1997, with a total of 2431 NE cases registered. NE cases were mostly associated with visiting forests and agricultural activities. The analysis revealed that the bank vole Myodes glareolus not only comprises the majority of the small rodent communities in the region, but also consistently displays the highest hantavirus prevalence compared to other small rodent species.
The Magellanic System represents one of the best places to study the formation and evolution of galaxies. Photometric surveys of various depths, areas and wavelengths have had a significant impact on our understanding of the system; however, a complete picture is still lacking. VMC (the VISTA near-infrared YJKs survey of the Magellanic System) will provide new data to derive the spatially resolved star formation history and to construct a three-dimensional map of the system. These data combined with those from other ongoing and planned surveys will give us an absolutely unique view of the system opening up the doors to truly new science!
The present experimental study is devoted to examination of the vortex receptivity mechanism associated with excitation of unsteady cross-flow (CF) waves due to scattering of unsteady free-stream vortices on localized steady surface non-uniformities (roughness). The measurements are carried out in a low-turbulence wind tunnel by means of a hot-wire anemometer in a boundary layer developing over a
swept-wing model. The harmonic-in-time free-stream vortices were excited by a thin vibrating wire located upstream of the experimental-model leading edge and represented a kind of small-amplitude von Kármán vortex street with spanwise orientation of the generated instantaneous vorticity vectors. The controlled roughness elements (the so-called ‘phased roughness’) were placed on the model surface. This roughness had a special shape, which provided excitation of CF-waves having basically some predetermined (required) spanwise wavenumbers. The linearity of the stability and receptivity mechanisms under study was checked accurately by means of variation of both the free-stream-vortex amplitude and the surface roughness height. These experiments were directed to obtaining the amplitudes and phases of the vortex-roughness receptivity coefficients for a number of vortex disturbance frequencies. The vortex street position with respect to the model surface (the vortex offset parameter) was also varied. The receptivity characteristics obtained experimentally in Fourier space are independent of the particular roughness shape, and can be used for validation of receptivity theories.
More than 20000 observations of Near Earth asteroids and comets are collected and reduced in Pulkovo Observatory during last 10 years. For observations of these objects two robotic telescopes are used – ZA-320M (Cassegrain system, D = 320 mm, F = 3200 mm) at Pulkovo and MTM-500M (Maksutov – Cassegrain system, D = 500 mm, F = 4100 mm) at Kislovodsk mountain station. These telescopes perform CCD observations of objects up to 18.0 and 20.5 magnitude, correspondingly. The results of observations are regularly submitted to Minor Planet Center.
Continuous decrease of the feature size of transistors in modern integrated circuits (ICs) constrains thickness of auxiliary dielectric layers in interconnects because of their relatively high dielectric constant, which reduces the efficiency of low-k material integration. Dielectric materials used today as barrier or etch-stop layers are usually SiN (k ∼ 7.0) and SiCN (k ∼ 4.8), which k-value significantly exceeds that of recent ultra low-k materials (k < 2.2). In our work we have investigated thin films of rigid-chain polyimide (PI) with a k-value of about 3.2-3.3. This film was deposited using a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique and can be as thin as several monolayers. The intermolecular interaction of densely packed precursor macromolecules within a monolayer formed at the water-air interface makes it possible to avoid penetration of precursor material inside the pores. The latter peculiarity of the deposition process results in a pore sealing effect using a 4 nm PI film.
The well-known recurrent nova T Pyx has brightened by 7 magnitudes, starting on 2011 April 14, its first eruption since 1966. T Pyx is unique amongst recurrent novæ in being surrounded by a nebula formed of material ejected during previous eruptions. The latest eruption therefore offers the rare opportunity to observe a light echo sweeping through the existing shell, and a new one forming. The sudden exposure of the existing shell to high-energy light is expected to result in a change of the dust morphology as well as in the part destruction of molecules. We observe this process in the near- and mid-IR during several epochs using ESO's VLT instruments Sinfoni, Visir and Isaac. Unfortunately, in the data analysed so far we only have a tentative detection in Brα from the shell, so might in the end have to be content with upper limits for the emission from the various molecular bands and ionised lines.
We examine the association of a venture capital (VC) firm’s reputation with the post-initial public offering (IPO) long-run performance of its portfolio firms. We find that VC reputation, measured by the past market share of VC-backed IPOs, has significant positive associations with long-run firm performance measures. While more reputable VCs initially select better-quality firms, more reputable VCs continue to be associated with superior long-run performance, even after controlling for VC selectivity. We find that more reputable VCs exhibit more active post-IPO involvement in the corporate governance of their portfolio firms, and this continued VC involvement positively influences post-IPO firm performance.
We performed group-theoretical analysis of the symmetry relationships between lattice structures of R, M1, M2, and T phases of vanadium dioxide in the frameworks of the general Ginzburg-Landau phase transition theory. The analysis leads to a conclusion that the competition between the lower-symmetry phases M1, M2, and T in the metal-insulator transition is pure symmetry driven, since all the three phases correspond to different directions of the same multi-component structural order parameter. Therefore, the lower-symmetry phases can be stabilized in respect to each other by small perturbations such as doping or stress.
The nanocrystalline samples of 10wt.%Scandia stabilized Zirconia (10ScSZ) and 1wt.%Ceria doped ScSZ (1Ce10ScSZ) prepared via co-precipitation route were characterized and compared to commercially available samples regarding their transport properties and electrical conductivity. The results of oxygen isotope experiments show that for Zirconia-based electrolytes, the rate of heteroexchange is lower than that for Samaria-doped Ceria. The results of Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) indicate that all admixed components are present both in the surface layer and the bulk of the studied samples with pronounced segregation on the grain boundary. The highest total conductivity is observed for DKKK sample. In the range of 600-400°C the highest conductivity observed for synthesized nanocrystalline 1Ce10ScSZ sample is explained by the effect of segregated Scandia doped Ceria surface layers.
Further progress in IC dimension reduction, increase in integration degree and speed require development and use of new current-conducting materials. This is due to the fact that existing current-conducting systems based on aluminium are low temperature, characterized by low electromi gration stability and require use of complex barrier layersi[l]. Polycide currentconducting materials have quite high resistance, interact with aluminium and are sensitive to the formation conditions. From this point of view, borides and titanium borides in particular are very promising for making current-conducting systems since they are very much characterized by good barrier properties, high conductance, properties and electromigration stability .
Using X-ray structural and transmission electron microscopy analyses, specific features of the phase and structure transformations in armco-iron and steel 45 affected by a high-current electron beam up to 1011 W/cm2 power density have been studied. It was revealed that hardening of steel with martensite structure has a quasi-periodic character that is caused by the action of a shock wave. The action of a shock wave results in formation of a thin layer on the rear side of the samples. The layer is composed of subgrains of ot-ferrite of a regular hexagonal shape with thin layers of graphite on their boundaries.
Using X-ray structural analysis and transmission electron microscopy of thin layers we have studied the mechanism of heat-affected zone formation in as-hardened steel irradiated by a low-energy microsecond high-current electron beam. It has been found that the above zone consists of three characteristic layers. We have analysed the conditions of formation of this layers using thermal calculations.
In the paper the development and usage of radiation detection systems based on room temperature semiconductors are described. The detection systems are intended for use by safeguards inspectors to verify nuclear material. Because of their high intrinsic efficiency, these detectors have advantages compared to classical germanium or Nal detectors. Several measurement tasks which cannot be handled in an optimum manner by using standard detectors have been solved. The main problem in the application of room temperature semiconductor detectors is the limitation in the availability of large detector volumes.