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The seventh-century AD switch from gold to silver currencies transformed the socio-economic landscape of North-west Europe. The source of silver, however, has proven elusive. Recent research, integrating ice-core data from the Colle Gnifetti drill site in the Swiss Alps, geoarchaeological records and numismatic and historical data, has provided new evidence for this transformation. Annual ice-core resolution data are combined with lead pollution analysis to demonstrate that significant new silver mining facilitated the change to silver coinage, and dates the introduction of such coinage to c. AD 660. Archaeological evidence and atmospheric modelling of lead pollution locates the probable source of the silver to mines at Melle, in France.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension. Current established protocols (RUSH, ACES, etc) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. We wished to use reported disease incidence to develop an informed approach to PoCUS in hypotension using a “4 F’s” approach: Fluid; Form; Function; Filling. Methods: We summarized the incidence of PoCUS findings from an international multicentre RCT, and using a modified Delphi approach incorporating this data we obtained the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. The modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate PoCUS for hypotensive emergency department patients. Results: Rates of abnormal PoCUS findings from 151 patients with undifferentiated hypotension included left ventricular dynamic changes (43%), IVC abnormalities (27%), pericardial effusion (16%), and pleural fluid (8%). Abdominal pathology was rare (fluid 5%, AAA 2%). After two rounds of the survey, using majority consensus, agreement was reached on a SHoC-hypotension protocol comprising: A. Core: 1. Cardiac views (Sub-xiphoid and parasternal windows for pericardial fluid, cardiac form and ventricular function); 2. Lung views for pleural fluid and B-lines for filling status; and 3. IVC views for filling status; B. Supplementary: Additional cardiac views; and C. Additional views (when indicated) including peritoneal fluid, aorta, pelvic for IUP, and proximal leg veins for DVT. Conclusion: An international consensus process based on prospectively collected disease incidence has led to a proposed SHoC-hypotension PoCUS protocol comprising a stepwise clinical-indication based approach of Core, Supplementary and Additional PoCUS views.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) provides invaluable information during resuscitation efforts in cardiac arrest by determining presence/absence of cardiac activity and identifying reversible causes such as pericardial tamponade. There is no agreed guideline on how to safely and effectively incorporate PoCUS into the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. We consider that a consensus-based priority checklist using a “4 F’s” approach (Fluid; Form; Function; Filling), would provide a better algorithm during ACLS. Methods: The ultrasound subcommittee of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) drafted a checklist incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm. This was further developed using the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. A modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate ultrasound into cardiac arrest algorithms for emergency department patients. Results: Consensus was reached following 3 rounds. The agreed protocol focuses on the timing of PoCUS as well as the specific clinical questions. Core cardiac windows performed during the rhythm check pause in chest compressions are the sub-xiphoid and parasternal cardiac views. Either view should be used to detect pericardial fluid, as well as examining ventricular form (e.g. right heart strain) and function, (e.g. asystole versus organized cardiac activity). Supplementary views include lung views (for absent lung sliding in pneumothorax and for pleural fluid), and IVC views for filling. Additional ultrasound applications are for endotracheal tube confirmation, proximal leg veins for DVT, or for sources of blood loss (AAA, peritoneal/pelvic fluid). Conclusion: The authors hope that this process will lead to a consensus-based SHoC-cardiac arrest guideline on incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm.
We report experiments and molecular dynamics calculations on the kinetics of electrodeposited lithium dendrites relaxation as a function of temperature and time. We found that the experimental average length of dendrite population decays via stretched exponential functions of time toward limiting values that depend inversely on temperature. The experimental activation energy derived from initial rates as Ea∼ 6-7 kcal/mole, which is closely matched by MD calculations, based on the ReaxFF force field for metallic lithium. Simulations reveal that relaxation proceeds in several steps via increasingly larger activation barriers. Incomplete relaxation at lower temperatures is therefore interpreted a manifestation of cooperative atomic motions into discrete topologies that frustrate monotonic progress by ‘caging’.
Experimental results of the internal quantum yield Yi associated with the internal photoemission on Au/n-Si structures are presented. The samples were prepared on Si(100) and Si(111) substrates with photoemitter layer thicknesses ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The Yi was measured at temperatures between 165 K and 300 K with the photoexciting energy varying from 0.72 eV to 1.07 eV. It was found that the Yi increases with decreasing Au layer thickness with a strong enhancement (40 times) in regard to the conventional Fowler theory. This experimental result is in good agreement with model calculations taking account of hot carrier scattering in the photoemitter layer. Barrier energies are larger than deduced from the Fowler plot.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
The present work shows results on elemental distribution analyses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells performed by use of wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope, EDX in a transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron, angle-dependent soft X-ray emission, secondary ion-mass (SIMS), time-of-flight SIMS, sputtered neutral mass, glow-discharge optical emission and glow-discharge mass, Auger electron, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by use of scanning Auger electron microscopy, Raman depth profiling, and Raman mapping, as well as by use of elastic recoil detection analysis, grazing-incidence X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction, and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films used for the present comparison were produced during the same identical deposition run and exhibit thicknesses of about 2 μm. The analysis techniques were compared with respect to their spatial and depth resolutions, measuring speeds, availabilities, and detection limits.
We report large magnetoresistance (in excess of 1000%) in ferromagnet / superconductor / ferromagnet structures made of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 and YBa2Cu3O7 in the current in plane (CIP) geometry. This magnetoresistance has many of the ingredients of the giant magnetoresistance of metallic superlattices: it is independent on the angle between current and magnetic field, depends on the relative orientation of the magnetization in the ferromagnetic layers, and takes very large values. The origin is enhanced scattering at the F/S interface in the anti parallel configuration of the magnetizations. Furthermore, we examine the dependence of the magnetoresistance effect on the thickness of the superconducting layer, and show that the magnetoresistance dies out for thickness in excess of 30 nm, setting a length scale for the diffusion of spin polarized quasiparticles.
High quality Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 [PZT] and (Pb1-xBax)(ZryTi1-y)O3 (x ≤ 0.15, 0.25 ≤ y ≤ 0.50) [PBZT] thin films were grown on Pt (111) and Ir (111) coated silicon substrates by means of a pulsed liquid injection metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The precursor solutions of Pb(DPM)2, Ba(DPM)2, Zr(IBPM)4, and Ti(OiPr)2(DPM)2 dissolved in butylacetate were separately injected into an AIX-200 reactor using a TriJet™ vaporizer. Stoichiometric films (0.98 ≤ A/B ≤ 1.06) with thickness between 80 nm and 150 nm were deposited at a susceptor temperature of 615 °C to 660 °C. Pure PZT films grown on platinum coated substrates show a randomly oriented perovskite structure accompanied with formation of a PbPtx alloy at the PZT/Pt interface. On the Ir(111) coated substrates the pure PZT films also exhibit a random orientation possibly due to oxidation of the Ir surface layer during the deposition process. Ferroelectric properties of Pr = 35 µC/cm2 and Ec = 90 kV/cm were obtained for a PZT (30/70) film of 150 nm thickness grown on Ir/Si. In contrast, PBZT films with a Ba content of about 5 to 15% show lower tendency for formation of a PbPtx interfacial layer, and a preferred (111) texture was observed for PBZT films grown on the Ir (111) substrates under optimized process conditions. Tetragonal and rhombohedral PBZT films with 15% Ba and a Zr-content of about 0.35 and 0.50, respectively, show an orientation dependence of the ferroelectric properties in the way that Ec is highest for <111> textured films in comparison to Ec determined for <110> textured films. The remanent polarization of 85 nm thick tetragonal PBZT films changes from 17 µC/cm2 for <111> orientation to 13.5 µC/cm2 for <110> texture. The relative permittivity changes in the same way from 600 to 540, respectively. The rhombohedral films exhibit a nearly independent Pr value of about 11 µC/cm2 while the switching field changes from 75 kV/cm for an <111> textured film to 46 kV/cm for an (110) textured one. The relative permittivity values of both films are 890 and 715 for the (110) and the (111) textured films, respectively. The trends observed for the textured PBZT films grown on Si substrates reflect the behaviour reported for epitaxial films 
Pb(DPM)2 and Pb(TMOD)2 dissolved in ethylcyclohexane were evaluated as precursors for future atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films. PbO films were deposited by a liquid injection atomic layer deposition on Pt-covered Si substrates at different deposition temperature and precursor volume per cycle. Pb(DPM)2 and Pb(TMOD)2 started thermal decomposition at deposition temperature of around 270°C and 320°C, respectively. Against increasing Pb(DPM)2 injection at 240°C, the deposition rate of PbO films saturated at around 1 Å/cycle, but kept increasing at 300°C, which is above the thermal decomposition temperature. The deposition rate of PbO films at 240°C dropped to a constant value with enough purge time after precursor injection and reactant supply. A saturated deposition rate of PbO films was also observed for Pb(TMOD)2 below the thermal decomposition temperature. However, the saturation behavior observed for Pb(TMOD)2 was slower and the saturated growth rate was higher comparing to Pb(DPM)2. In addition, the film thickness of the PbO films had an apparent gradient over the substrates. These results indicate that Pb(DPM)2 shows more reactive and stable chemisorption comparing to Pb(TMOD)2 for the self-limiting growth rate.
We undertook differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements at 170 K < T < 300 K on n-decane, physically confined in 8 nm (= diameter D) porous silica derivatized with various functional groups, to understand how surface structure of the confining media affects the freezing or melting transition of the n-decane. Though we observed a typical depression (ΔT) in the freezing or melting transition temperature of the physically confined decane, our results failed to manifest usual linear dependence of ΔT on D−1 when the expected contraction in D, due to the presence of aminopropyl-, hexyl-, phenyl- or trimethyl-groups on the silica surface, was taken into account. However, it is worth noting that a linear behavior was observed between ΔT and D−1 if only alkane-chain derivatized hosts were considered. Our results also indicate that a large fraction of physically confined n-decane (35 to 70 %), depending on the host silica, does not participate either in the melting or freezing transition. The most interesting behavior observed in the present study is the occurrence of the unusual two peaks associated with the freezing transition of physically confined decane. This bimodal behavior is strongly dependent on the chemistry of the confining silica host's surface.
Polarization graded ferroelectrics exhibit unconventional electrical properties that are not usually observed from homogenous ferroelectrics. Systematic spatial variations in the polarization in a ferroelectric material can be achieved by composition, temperature, and stress gradients; resulting in the displacement of the polarization vs. electric field hysteresis curve along the polarization axis. In this paper, this unusual phenomenon of hysteresis offset has been examined in BaTiO3 and BaxSr1-xTiO3 material systems using a Landau-Ginzburg phenomenological model for the first time. It is shown that the spatial non-uniformities can give rise to non-uniformities in polarization with corresponding spatial variations. This non-uniform polarization results in asymmetrical hysteresis with “up” or “down” charge offsets which are strongly dependent upon the magnitude and direction of the temperature, composition and stress gradients for three graded ferroelectrics.
The local electromechanical properties of relaxor 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.1PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) films are investigated by Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) in a piezoelectric contact mode. The domain contrast is observed only in some grains (∼20 % of the entire surface), which showed clear ferroelectric behavior. Thus on the microscopic level the material behaves as a composite with ferroelectric regions embedded in the non-polar matrix. This was attributed to the relaxor-to-ferroelectric phase transition induced by the internal bias field. The local hysteresis loops are found to depend on the size of the grains. A distinct correlation between the values of the effective piezoelectric coefficients, deffi and the size of the respective grains is observed. Small grains exhibit slim piezoelectric hysteresis loops with low remanent deff while relatively strong piezoelectric activity is characteristic of larger grains. In addition, large grains exhibit longer relaxation time after poling with an effective time constant increasing with the grain size. The nature of size effect is discussed taking in terms of dynamics of nanopolar clusters and SFM instrumentation.
Polarization-graded ferroelectrics and their electrically active counterparts, graded ferroelectric devices (GFDs) and transpacitors has been achieved in a number ways, including a variation in the composition of the material, or impressing a temperature gradients across the structure. In this article, we report how these same devices can be formed from homogeneous ferroelectric films of lead strontium titanate by imposing stress gradients on the materials normal to their electrode surfaces. A qualitative description of asymmetric hysteresis behavior based on a modified Landau potential is provided.
Barium titanate microstructures are fabricated on silicon(100)/platinum substrates coated with photoresist and titanium by a combination of hydrothermal and lift-off techniques. The microstructures of 10μm width are well defined. The barium titanate films grow in its cubic phase. Analysis by means of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy shows that only a part of the titanium layer is affected by the hydrothermal reaction. This limitation may be overcome by application of electrochemistry.
Optical gain processes in thin GaN and AlGaN are compared by means of gain spectroscopy using the stripe length method and high-excitation photoluminescence, both performed at various densities and temperatures. We find that inelastic excitonic scattering processes and biexciton decay are important at low temperatures and low excitation densities Both materials are similar in that increasing the excitation density results in gain spectra dominated by the electron-hole plasma and phonon-assisted band-to-band recombination. These also prevail at high temperatures.
In this study, we present a numerical model, implemented in our two-dimensional Finite-Element process simulator, allowing the evaluation of the mechanical stress generated by deposited oxides in case of adsorbing or desorbing of water. Using both in-situ and ex-situ measurements of stress, the model parameters (water diffusion, evaporation rate, viscosity) are calibrated. Moisture instability of doped silicate glasses, like borophosphosilicate (BPSG) and phosphosilicate (PSG), is investigated. Moreover, an extension of the present model to simulate the densification of Spin-On-Glass (SOG) will be demonstrated. A failure analysis of a specific structure in an industrial process will validate the capability of the model to evaluate and minimize the risk of cracking in SOG films during densification.
We demonstrate submicron ferroelectric domain engineering in liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) LiNbO3 thin films grown on LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 substrates using a direct-write electron beam poling for waveguide applications. LiNbO3 thin films of several-micron thickness were grown using a flux melt of 20 mol% LiNbO3-80 mol% LiVO3. To engineer domain structures in Z- oriented LPE LiNbO3 films, a direct-write electron beam poling was implemented. It is shown that we can engineer the domain structure of LPE LiNbO3 films by using direct e-beam poling, even though the domain orientations of the film and the substrate are opposite. We also compared e-beam poling behavior in a congruent LiNbO3 single crystal and a LPE LiNbO3 film. Using the same e-beam scan parameters, a much enhanced domain structure is obtained in LPE films. Defect structure and composition effects are also discussed.
A novel liquid iridium precursor (1,3-cyclohexadiene)(ethylcyclopentadienyl)iridium, Ir(EtCp)(CHD), was synthesized and its physical properties were examined. Ir(EtCp)(CHD) exhibited enough vapor pressure (0.1 Torr/75°C), excellent volatility and adequate decomposition temperature. Characteristics of the Ir films deposited using Ir(EtCp)(CHD) and the conventional Ir precursor (1,5-cyclooctadiene)(ethylcyclopentadienyl)iridium, Ir(EtCp)(COD), by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method were compared. Ir films grown using Ir(EtCp)(CHD) showed shorter incubation time and higher nucleation density than those of films using Ir(EtCp)(COD).