To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Fontan Outcomes Network was created to improve outcomes for children and adults with single ventricle CHD living with Fontan circulation. The network mission is to optimise longevity and quality of life by improving physical health, neurodevelopmental outcomes, resilience, and emotional health for these individuals and their families. This manuscript describes the systematic design of this new learning health network, including the initial steps in development of a national, lifespan registry, and pilot testing of data collection forms at 10 congenital heart centres.
The seventh-century AD switch from gold to silver currencies transformed the socio-economic landscape of North-west Europe. The source of silver, however, has proven elusive. Recent research, integrating ice-core data from the Colle Gnifetti drill site in the Swiss Alps, geoarchaeological records and numismatic and historical data, has provided new evidence for this transformation. Annual ice-core resolution data are combined with lead pollution analysis to demonstrate that significant new silver mining facilitated the change to silver coinage, and dates the introduction of such coinage to c. AD 660. Archaeological evidence and atmospheric modelling of lead pollution locates the probable source of the silver to mines at Melle, in France.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound has become an established tool in the initial management of patients with undifferentiated hypotension. Current established protocols (RUSH, ACES, etc) were developed by expert user opinion, rather than objective, prospective data. We wished to use reported disease incidence to develop an informed approach to PoCUS in hypotension using a “4 F’s” approach: Fluid; Form; Function; Filling. Methods: We summarized the incidence of PoCUS findings from an international multicentre RCT, and using a modified Delphi approach incorporating this data we obtained the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. The modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate PoCUS for hypotensive emergency department patients. Results: Rates of abnormal PoCUS findings from 151 patients with undifferentiated hypotension included left ventricular dynamic changes (43%), IVC abnormalities (27%), pericardial effusion (16%), and pleural fluid (8%). Abdominal pathology was rare (fluid 5%, AAA 2%). After two rounds of the survey, using majority consensus, agreement was reached on a SHoC-hypotension protocol comprising: A. Core: 1. Cardiac views (Sub-xiphoid and parasternal windows for pericardial fluid, cardiac form and ventricular function); 2. Lung views for pleural fluid and B-lines for filling status; and 3. IVC views for filling status; B. Supplementary: Additional cardiac views; and C. Additional views (when indicated) including peritoneal fluid, aorta, pelvic for IUP, and proximal leg veins for DVT. Conclusion: An international consensus process based on prospectively collected disease incidence has led to a proposed SHoC-hypotension PoCUS protocol comprising a stepwise clinical-indication based approach of Core, Supplementary and Additional PoCUS views.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) provides invaluable information during resuscitation efforts in cardiac arrest by determining presence/absence of cardiac activity and identifying reversible causes such as pericardial tamponade. There is no agreed guideline on how to safely and effectively incorporate PoCUS into the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. We consider that a consensus-based priority checklist using a “4 F’s” approach (Fluid; Form; Function; Filling), would provide a better algorithm during ACLS. Methods: The ultrasound subcommittee of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) drafted a checklist incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm. This was further developed using the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. A modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate ultrasound into cardiac arrest algorithms for emergency department patients. Results: Consensus was reached following 3 rounds. The agreed protocol focuses on the timing of PoCUS as well as the specific clinical questions. Core cardiac windows performed during the rhythm check pause in chest compressions are the sub-xiphoid and parasternal cardiac views. Either view should be used to detect pericardial fluid, as well as examining ventricular form (e.g. right heart strain) and function, (e.g. asystole versus organized cardiac activity). Supplementary views include lung views (for absent lung sliding in pneumothorax and for pleural fluid), and IVC views for filling. Additional ultrasound applications are for endotracheal tube confirmation, proximal leg veins for DVT, or for sources of blood loss (AAA, peritoneal/pelvic fluid). Conclusion: The authors hope that this process will lead to a consensus-based SHoC-cardiac arrest guideline on incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm.
We report experiments and molecular dynamics calculations on the kinetics of electrodeposited lithium dendrites relaxation as a function of temperature and time. We found that the experimental average length of dendrite population decays via stretched exponential functions of time toward limiting values that depend inversely on temperature. The experimental activation energy derived from initial rates as Ea∼ 6-7 kcal/mole, which is closely matched by MD calculations, based on the ReaxFF force field for metallic lithium. Simulations reveal that relaxation proceeds in several steps via increasingly larger activation barriers. Incomplete relaxation at lower temperatures is therefore interpreted a manifestation of cooperative atomic motions into discrete topologies that frustrate monotonic progress by ‘caging’.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
The present work shows results on elemental distribution analyses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells performed by use of wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope, EDX in a transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron, angle-dependent soft X-ray emission, secondary ion-mass (SIMS), time-of-flight SIMS, sputtered neutral mass, glow-discharge optical emission and glow-discharge mass, Auger electron, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by use of scanning Auger electron microscopy, Raman depth profiling, and Raman mapping, as well as by use of elastic recoil detection analysis, grazing-incidence X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction, and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films used for the present comparison were produced during the same identical deposition run and exhibit thicknesses of about 2 μm. The analysis techniques were compared with respect to their spatial and depth resolutions, measuring speeds, availabilities, and detection limits.
The aim of the present work is the further development of the thermodynamics of hydrogen-like plasmas with densities on the order of 1027–1029 m−3 at temperatures of 106−108 K. Therefore, the Jacobi-Padé approximation for the so-called relative energy level shifts is applied to a quasineutral plasma consisting of six-fold and five-fold ionized carbon atoms and electrons. The relative energy level shift of the five-fold ionized carbon is determined by the difference between Coulomb and Debye potential, and by the kinetic energy of the particles. The shift caused by the kinetic energy (KES) has to be found considering the momentum space of the particles, so that nine-fold integrals in phase space have to be calculated. Quantum-physically, former numerical calculations of KES were only performed for particle states with zero angular quantum numbers. In the present work, a detailed, to a large extent analytical analysis of the KES is given for any angular quantum number, enabling also an improved analysis of future further-developed Jacobi-Padé formulae. Relative energy shifts of the bound-states of the fivefold ionized carbon are numerically obtained as function of the Mott parameter of the plasma. Dependencies of the shifts on main quantum numbers and orbital quantum numbers are discussed.
Pseudorabies virus (PrV) infections appear to be more widely distributed in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa) population than assumed. In Europe, attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agents have been limited so far. We therefore collected and examined a total of 35 PrV isolates obtained from wild boar or hunting dogs in Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Slovakia and Hungary between 1993 and 2008. Restriction enzyme analysis of genomic DNA using BamHI showed that all isolates, except one, belonged to genogroup I but different subtypes were evident. For further investigations of the phylogenetic relationships, a 732-bp fragment of the glycoprotein C (gC) gene was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed about 40 variant positions within this fragment. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences supported the separation into a clade containing isolates from North-Rhine Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), France and Spain (clade B) and an apparently more variable clade comprising isolates from Brandenburg, Baden-Wurttemberg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt (Germany), Slovakia, Hungary, Italy and France (clade A).
Generic guidance on the withdrawal of sheltering, withdrawal of evacuation and evacuation
of sheltered populations (displacement) has been developed based on previously unpublished
work in the UK and France and on input from stakeholder panels in Germany, Belgium, France
and the UK. The guidance is a living document that can be developed further in the future,
both in its generic form and also as customised versions in some Member States. The
guidance outlines the many factors which influence the withdrawal of emergency
countermeasures: official confirmation that any release has stopped; adequacy of
monitoring data; radiological criteria; radiological protection advice; availability of
resources; social and psychological needs; stakeholder dialogue; and communication
strategy. The relative importance placed by decision makers on each of these criteria
would vary according to the nature and scale of the accident and also on socio-political,
economic and cultural perspectives. In the event of a radiological incident, decision
makers will need to be in a position to construct a strategy for managing the withdrawal
of emergency countermeasures. For larger scale, longer duration releases involving several
nuclides, a management strategy is likely to be complex. The guidance therefore includes a
series of checklists which have been developed in conjunction with stakeholders to take
into account the main criteria and factors which should be considered.
The high energy loss of heavy ions in matter as well as the small angular scattering makes heavy ion beams an excellent tool to produce almost cylindrical and homogeneously excited volumes in matter. This aspect can be used to pump short wavelength lasers. For the first time, a beam of heavy ions was used to pump a short wavelength gas laser in an experiment performed at the GSI ion accelerator facility in December 2005. In this experiment, the well-known KrF* excimer laser was pumped with an intense uranium beam. Pulses of an uranium beam compressed down to 110 ns (full width at half maximum) with initial particle energy of 250 MeV per nucleon were stopped inside a gas laser cell. A mixture of an excimer laser premix gas (95.5%Kr + 0.5%F2) and a buffer gas (Ar) in different proportions was used as the laser gas. The maximum beam intensity reached in the experiment was 2.5 × 109 particles per pulse, which resulted in 34 J/g specific energy deposited in the laser gas. The laser effect on the transition at λ = 248 nm has been successfully demonstrated by various independent methods. There, the laser threshold was reached with a beam intensity of 1.2 × 109 particles per pulse, and the energy of the laser pulse of about 2 mJ was measured for an ion beam intensity of 2 × 109 particles per pulse. As a next step, it is planned to reduce the laser wavelength down to the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region, and to proceed to the excimer lasers of the pure rare gases. The perspectives for such experiments are discussed and the detailed estimations for Xe and Kr cases are given. We believe that the use of heavy ion beams as a pumping source may lead to new pumping schemes on the higher lying level transitions and considerably shorter wavelengths, which rely on the high cross sections for multiple ionization of the target species.
Cylindrical cryogenic targets are required to carry out the Laboratory Planetary Science scheme of the experiments of the High Energy Density matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams collaboration at FAIR. In this paper, for the first time a thorough analysis of the problem of such targets' fabrication, delivery and positioning in the center of the experimental chamber has been made. Particular attention is paid to the issue of a specialized cryogenic system creation intended for rep-rate supply of the High Energy Density matter Generated by Heavy Ion Beams experiments with the cylindrical cryogenic targets.
This paper presents three–dimensional numerical simulations of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response of a wheel shaped solid graphite production target for the super conducting fragment separator (Super–FRS) that is irradiated with a fast extracted high intensity uranium beam. These fragment separator experiments will be carried out at the future Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), at Darmstadt. Previously, we reported simulation results that were carried out using two–dimensional computer codes which showed that one can use a solid graphite target for the Super-FRS for the highest intensity (5 × 1011 ions per spill) of the fast extracted uranium beam. Present results, however, have shown that due to three–dimensional effects the maximum intensity that can be used with such a target is 3 × 1011 ions per spill. A detailed comparison between two–dimensional and three–dimensional results is presented in this paper.
This paper describes a fast multi-channel radiation pyrometer that was developed for warm dense-matter experiments with intense heavy ion beams at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI). The pyrometer is capable of measuring brightness temperatures from 2000 K to 50,000 K, at six wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum, with 5 ns temporal resolution, and several micrometers spatial resolution. The pyrometer's spectral discrimination technique is based on interference filters, which also act as mirrors to allow for simultaneous spectral discrimination of the same ray at multiple wavelengths.
Extensive numerical simulations have been carried out to design a viable solid graphite wheel shaped production target for the super conducting fragment separator experiments (Super-FRS) at the future Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) using an intense uranium beam. In this study, generation, propagation and decay of deviatoric stress waves induced by the beam in the target, have been investigated. Maximum beam intensities that the target can tolerate using different focal spot sizes that are determined by requirements of good isotope resolution and transmission of the secondary beam through the fragment separator, have been calculated. It has been reported elsewhere that the tensile strength of graphite significantly increases with temperature. To take advantage of this effect, calculations have also been done in which the target is preheated to a higher temperature, that in practice can be achieved, for example, by irradiating the target with a defocused ion beam before the experiments are performed. We report results of a few examples using an initial temperature of 2000 K. This study has shown that employing such a configuration, one may use a solid graphite production target even for the maximum intensity of the uranium beam (5 × 1011 ion per bunch) at the Super-FRS.
This paper presents numerical simulations of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic response for solid targets that are irradiated with strongly bunched, highly focused, intense beams of energetic uranium ions. The main purpose of this work is to study the behavior of thermal stress waves induced in such targets by the incident ion beam. These theoretical studies will complement the experimental investigations that will be carried out in the near future at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) plasma physics experimental area. These experiments will be performed using the existing heavy ion synchrotron, SIS18, which delivers 4 × 109 uranium ions in a single bunch with a length of about 125 ns. Other time structures, for example, a pulse that consists of a series of bunches, are also possible. The particle energy is on the order of 400 MeV/u and the beam can be focused to sub millimeter radius. This information concerning material response under intense beam loading will have important implications on designing a viable production target for the superconducting fragment separator, Super-FRS, which is going to be constructed at the future facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR), Darmstadt, Germany, for the production and separation of exotic nuclei.
We used synchrotron light to determine VUV-UV absorption spectra (125–340 nm) of thin films of substances associated with UV resistance in specific groups of organisms or across limited phylogenetic boundaries: scytonemin, mycosporine-like amino acids, dipicolinic acid, β-carotene, melanin and flavonoids (quercitrin, isoquercitrin, robinin and catechin). The objective was to extend known UV absorption spectra into the vacuum UV, and to evaluate the likely effectiveness of these molecules in shielding DNA from the unfiltered solar UV found in space, using similarity with DNA absorption spectra as the primary criterion. The spectroscopy indicated that plant flavonoids would be ideal UV screens in space. We suggest that flavonoids represent primitive UV screens, and offer explanations (including horizontal gene transfer) for their presence in plants. We also discuss the possibility of improving UV resistance by increasing flavonoid accumulation through metabolic engineering, in the hope of better adapting life for space travel, i.e. for its dissemination away from the Earth (exospermia). Finally, we propose using plant seeds as exospermia vehicles for sending life (including artificial life) into space.
Panspermia, the dissemination of life through space, would require resistance to the conditions found in space, including UV light. All known life forms depend on DNA to store information. In an effort to understand the liabilities of DNA to UV light and modes of DNA protection in terrestrial life forms, we established UV–VUV (125–340 nm) absorption spectra for dry DNA and its polymerized components and mononucleotides, as well as for a selection of potential UV screens ubiquitous in all organisms, including proteins, selected amino acids and amines (polyamines and tyramine). Montmorillonite clay was included as a potential abiotic UV screen. Among the potential screens tested, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) appeared to be particularly attractive, because its UV absorption spectrum was similar to that of DNA. We suggest that the use of ATP in UV protection could have pre-dated its current role in energy transfer. Spectroscopy also showed that UV absorption varied according to nucleotide content, suggesting that base pair usage could be a factor in adaptation to given UV environments and the availability of UV screens.