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Research has shown that religious affiliation has a protective effect against deliberate self-harm. This is particularly pronounced in periods of increased religious significance, such as periods of worship, celebration, and fasting. However, no data exist as to whether this effect is present during the Christian period of Lent. Our hypothesis was that Lent would lead to decreased presentations of self-harm emergency department (ED) in a predominantly Catholic area of Ireland.
Following ethical approval, we retrospectively analysed data on presentations to the ED of University Hospital Limerick during the period of Lent and the 40 days immediately preceding it. Frequency data were compared using Pearson’s chi-squared tests in SPSS.
There was no significant difference in the overall number of people presenting to the ED with self-harm during Lent compared to the 40 days preceding it (χ2 = 0.75, df = 1, p > 0.05), and there was no difference in methods of self-harm used. However, there was a significant increase in attendances with self-harm during Lent in the over 50’s age group (χ2 = 7.76, df = 1, p = 0.005).
Based on our study, Lent is not a protective factor for deliberate self-harm and was associated with increased presentations in the over 50’s age group. Further large-scale studies are warranted to investigate this finding as it has implications for prevention and management of deliberate self-harm.
The direct involvement of patients and carers in psychiatric education is driven by policy in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The benefits of this involvement are well known, however, it is important to consider the ethical aspects. This paper suggests how further research could explore and potentially mitigate adverse outcomes.
A literature search evaluating the role of patients and carer involvement in psychiatric education was undertaken to summarise existing evidence relating to the following: methods of involvement, evidence of usefulness, patient’s/carer’s views and learners’ views.
The Medline search produced 231 articles of which 31 were included in the literature review based on the key themes addressed in the paper.
The available evidence is generally positive regarding the use of patients and carers in psychiatric education. However, available research is varied in approach and outcome with little information on the ethical consequences. More research is required to inform policies on teaching regarding potential adverse effects of service user involvement.
Basic emergency care at primary, secondary and tertiary health care level in India is in its infancy. Lack of training in emergency care is an important factor. We designed AIIMS basic emergency care course (AIIMS BECC) to address the issue.
To improve the knowledge, skill and attitude of healthcare workers and laypersons in basic emergency care and to identify and train instructors.
Prospective study conducted over a period of one and half years. The target groups were medical, police, fire fighter, paramilitary forces, teachers, school children of India. Provider AIIMS BECC is of one day duration. The contents of the course are cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, chocking and special scenarios like trauma, electrocution, drowning, hypothermia, pregnancy, etc. Course was disseminated via lectures, audio-visual and hands on training. The participants were evaluated by pre and post test questions. Subjects had to score 80% to be successful and those who scored more than 90% were eligible for instructor course. The confidence levels at baseline and at the end of the course were evaluated in policecourses were evaluated on course clarity, course delivery and trainers quality on a likert scale (1 = worst, 5 = excellent).
1614 subjects were trained. 99.81% became providers and 2.6% were trained as instructors. 83.1% were non-medical and16.9% were medical personals. 76.14% were police, paramilitary 0.8%, teachers 1.6%, students 2.1% and mixed groups were 2.6%. The average and modal increase in confidence level among police were 66.14% and 62.49%. Likert scale of ≥ 4 was observed in 90.7% in course clarity, 91.28% in course delivery and 95.26% in trainer quality.
Knowledge, skill and attitude of healthcare care and laypersons in providing basic emergency care improved by community emergency care initiative. Instructors were identified for further dissemination of the course. The confidence levels increased among police.
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