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To estimate dietary fluoride intake (F-) over the course of pregnancy and the overall adjusted difference in dietary F- intake by pregnancy stages and levels of compliance with dietary recommendations.
Secondary data analysis from a longitudinal pregnancy cohort study in a population exposed to fluoridated salt. Women were followed during the early, middle and late stages of their pregnancy (n=568). The dietary intake of recommended prenatal nutrients according to Mexican dietary guidelines and F- intake (mg/day) were estimated with a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Data were summarized with descriptive statistics. Levels of F- intake were compared to the USA’s IOM Adequate Intake (AI) of 3 mg/day for pregnancy. Adjusted differences in F- intake by pregnancy stages and levels of compliance with recommendations were estimated using random effects models.
Women participating in the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to ENvironmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) project, from 2001 to 2003.
Median dietary F- intake (IQR) throughout pregnancy ranged from 0.64 (0.38) in the early-, to 0.70 (0.42) in the middle-, and 0.72 (0.44) mg/day in the late-stage (0.01 mg F-/kg/day). Corresponding adjusted intakes of F- [95% CI] were 0.72 [0.70-0.74], 0.76 [0.74-0.77], and 0.80 [0.78-0.82] mg/day. Women who were moderately and highly compliant with Mexican dietary recommendations ingested, on average, 0.04 and 0.14 mg F-/day more than non-compliant women (p<0.005).
Dietary F- intake was below current AI, was greater with the progression of pregnancy and in women who were moderately and highly compliant with dietary recommendations.
Context-sensitive global analysis of large code bases can be expensive, which can make its use impractical during software development. However, there are many situations in which modifications are small and isolated within a few components, and it is desirable to reuse as much as possible previous analysis results. This has been achieved to date through incremental global analysis fixpoint algorithms that achieve cost reductions at fine levels of granularity, such as changes in program lines. However, these fine-grained techniques are neither directly applicable to modular programs nor are they designed to take advantage of modular structures. This paper describes, implements, and evaluates an algorithm that performs efficient context-sensitive analysis incrementally on modular partitions of programs. The experimental results show that the proposed modular algorithm shows significant improvements, in both time and memory consumption, when compared to existing non-modular, fine-grain incremental analysis techniques. Furthermore, thanks to the proposed intermodular propagation of analysis information, our algorithm also outperforms traditional modular analysis even when analyzing from scratch.
Recent trends in the area of catalytic applications of metal–organic framework (MOF)-derived nanocarbons are covered. These highly porous nanostructures, convenient for the green chemistry processes, are generally formed by the direct carbonization of a variety of MOF, mainly MOF-5, ZIF-8, ZIF-67, UiO-66-NH2, MIL-101-NH2 at 700–1000 °C in argon or nitrogen flow. Differences between conventional porous carbons and MOF-derived carbons are in pore volumes, surface area, and presence of ad-atoms. The morphology of the MOF-derived nanocarbons can be adjustable with uniform dopant distribution. Resulting nanocarbons are widely applied in heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis and are very promising as electrocatalysts, having excellent performance in oxygen evolution reaction, oxygen reduction reaction, and hydrogen evolution reaction. Catalytic applications for environmental purposes are also discussed. Good catalytic performance is related with highly dispersed heteroatoms, density of catalytic active sites, controllable porosity, and high surface area. Opportunities for further research are indicated, in particular, the creation of low pH-stable electrocatalysts and novel strategies for the preparation of 1÷3D single-atom catalysts.
Apis mellifera is infected by more than 24 virus species worldwide, mainly positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of the Dicistroviridae and Iflaviridae families. Among the viruses that infect honey bees, Deformed wing virus is the most prevalent and is present as three master variants DWV-A, B, and C. Given that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor vectors these virus variants, recombination events between them are expected, and variants and their recombinants can co-exist in mites and honeybees at the same time. In this study, we detect, through RT-qPCR, the presence of DWV-A and B in the same samples of adult bees from colonies of Argentina. Total RNA was extracted from pools of ten adult bees from 45 apiaries distributed across the main beekeeping Provinces of Argentina (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Córdoba, Santiago del Estero, Río Negro, and Mendoza); then RT-qPCR reactions were performed to detect DWV-A and B, with specific primer pairs. After the amplifications, PCR products (204 and 660 bp amplicons for DWV-B, and ~250 bp for DWV-A) were purified and sequenced to verify that they corresponded to reported sequences, analyzing them using the Blast software. Of the 45 samples analyzed by RT-qPCR, over 90% were infected with DWV-A and 47% were also positive for DWV-B, where it was found in high prevalence specifically in colonies of A. mellifera of the Buenos Aires Province. Future studies will determine the impact of this type of the virus and its ability to recombine with the other DWV types in the apiaries of our country.
There are few papers that focus on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of earthen mortars. These mortars are abundant in historical buildings in northwestern Spain. The Basílica da AscensiónyForno da Santa building is an unfinished church built on a previous structure that was transformed into a crypt (Allariz, Ourense, NW Spain). Previous archaeological studies established a sequence of phases of construction, the first dating back to the Iron Age, with significant changes occurring in the Early and Late Medieval ages. The only datable material in the crypt is earthen mortar. Thus, eight mortar samples (seven joint mortars and one wall infill) were taken, seven of them dated by OSL. The dose rate was assessed, and the expected equivalent doses estimated based on the established archaeological age. Several grain sizes (from fine to coarse) were used in small multigrain aliquots to assess the equivalent doses and ages. No evidence of partial bleaching was observed in most samples and grain sizes. The resulting ages are younger than expected for most samples. This is explained by the fact that joints were repaired with new mortar from the 16th century onwards.
Most of the studies about Eating Disorders in adolescents have been typically focused on females, only to conclude that the approach should be similar in males. It has been stimated that 5-10% of patients with Anorexia Nervosa are males. Later age of onset and higher prevalence of premorbid overweight are considered among the main differences with female patients.
Analysis of the anthropometric variables of a sample of males with diagnosis of Restrictive Eating Disorder.
Naturalistic, Descriptive and Retrospective study
- Sample: 22 male adolescents
- Inclusion criteria: males with Restrictive Eating Disorder diagnosis (according to DSM-IV criteria) admitted to an Eating Disorder ward during 2007 and 2008
- “ad hoc” questionnaire (15 items)
- Analysis: PASW statistics 18
Age range: 7-14years (medium age=14,79±2,50years).11 patients (50%) were older than 16 years-old
- Medium BMI (Body Mass Index) at the beginning of the admission was 17,79kg/m2.
medium weight loss: 13,5±7,02kg/m2 (corresponding to a reduction of 22,24±7,52% of the previous weight)
- Medium speed of weight loss: 0,92±1,1kg/54
- BMI at discharge: 18,69 ±3,43 kg/m2
- 19/22 patients (86%) had a premorbid history of overweight
- Binge eating: 8 patients (36,4%)
- Purgative behaviour: 10 patients (45%)
- Laxatives use: 4 patients (18%)
- Intense physical exercise: 21 patients (95,5%)
- Average duration of current restrictive episode: 13,7 months
In the studied sample we observed:
- High prevalence of premobid overweight
- Very high frequency of compulsive exercise
- Drastic weight loss and loss of a very high percentage of the previous weight, in short periods of time, reaching very low BMI.
Stress and trauma have been reported as leading contributing factors in schizophrenia. And certainly child abuse (neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse among others) has a lasting negative impact, which is well established in literature.
To consider the presence of infant trauma and its relationship with psychopathology in paranoid schizophrenics.Methods. 37 patients (mean age 29±6.3; years from onset 9.20±4.7), meeting DSM IV paranoid schizophrenia criteria, undergoing treatment in a university hospital are studied. The PANSS is administered in order to rate psychopathology.
27 patients had infant trauma (55.8%). Main traumas are: sexual abuse (12.8%), child abuse (7.7%), both sexual and child abuse (5.18%), parental separation (7.7%), extra-rigid parents (2.6%), alcoholic parents (18.2%), child abuse and mother's death in childhood (2.6%). Infant trauma and psychopathology showed a significant relationship concerning Hostility (No 1.75±1.209, Yes 2.26±1.759), Unnatural Movements and Posture (No 1.55±0.945, Yes 1.16±0.545), Depression (No 1.25±0.550, Yes 1.74±1.284) and Preoccupation (No 2.75±1.410, Yes 3.26±1.996).
Infant trauma is common in paranoid schizophrenia and our findings give some evidence to a relationship with psychopathology, especially with dimensions as Hostility, Unnatural Movements and Posture, Depression and Preoccupation. Despite sample size, a high proportion (55.8%) of the patients presented infant trauma and future research is needed in order to open new avenues in this field, particularly studies concerning infant trauma and symptomatology specificity will be greatly appreciated as well as the plausible link to personality traits and personality disorders.
The aim is to investigate the association between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and panic disorder (PD). Genotyping 92 PD patients [Diagnostic Statistic Manual IV (DSM IV) criteria] and 174 controls no differences were found between both groups. Variation in the ApoE-gene was not associated with the development of PD.
At present,the need of antipsychotic treatments for the improvement of the condition of people with psychotic disorders is unquestionable.Despite the current availability of highly effective drugs with few secondary effects,the main cause behind hospitalization is still the lack of compliance.
Analysis of the determining variables behind the need for hospitalization and the influence of the types of antipsychotic treatments.
Retrospective and follow-up analysis of psychotic patients hospitalized in the Psychiatric Ward of the Hospital de Conxo (1998-2005).Three groups of patients:with Oral neuroleptics(170), with Depot typical neuroleptics (238),with Long-Acting Risperidone(60);and comparison based on treatment maintenance.
Males,day-to-day living with the family of origin and single status are predominant in all three groups,although in a higher proportion in the Long-Acting Risperidone one(75,71 and 85%respectively).Only 7% of the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone completed their university studies,62% were pensioners.The average duration of hospitalization periods is 21 days for the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone,23.3 days in the Oral group,29.5 days in the Depot group.The main cause behind re-hospitalization is the lack of compliance(68% in Depot group),whilst after the introduction of Long-Acting Risperidone,no compliance rate is 59%.If we compare the number of hospitalizations/year of the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone,before and after its introduction,the rate is reduced significantly from 0.89 to 0.73.
Despite the fact that patients treated with Long-Acting Risperidone show a more seriously ill condition and less social capacity,they have less need for hospitalization than patients treated with Depot neuroleptics.Median lengths of stay were shorter than patients in the other two groups,and are less re-hospitalized after the introduction of this treatment.
There have been numerous studies that reveal attitudes of different social groups in relation to mental illness, but have not been developed none in other chronic diseases such as fibromyalgia.
Our hypothesis is to demonstrate that there are certain beliefs about the disease that determine attitudes, and these beliefs may be related to certain personality patterns.
To determine the relationship between personality dimensions and attribution of causes fibromyalgia.
Evaluation of a sample of medical students, which were administered the following tests: demographic data (age, sex, year of study), Zuckerman-Kuhlman's Questionnaire of personality, level of concern about the disease and survey of possible causes in fibromyalgia.
A total of 34 students were interviewed, between 3rd and 6th grade of Medicine, with a mean age of 24.8 years (sd 5.5). 70.6% were women. 20.6% had contact with the disease (which in most cases a family member diagnosed with fibromyalgia), no statistically significant differences with respect to the concern about the disease, compared with the rest. There is a high level of agreement in the sample in the attribution of cause of fibromyalgia to a genetic predisposition, personality or sleep disorders.
In our study, Neuroticism stands between personality dimension. High scores on this dimension are associated with statistically significant differences (t-student), to attribute the cause “attract attention” (p = 0.02) or the “Influence of the mass media” (p = 0,03) in fibromyalgia.
There are dimensions of personality such as neuroticism, which may influence the attribution of causes of the disease Fibromyalgia.
To carry out cultural adaptation and validation into Spanish of the 7-items self-administered GAD-7 scale; a tool to identify probable patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD).
Material and methods:
The adaptation, conducted by an eight-expert panel, was performed by means of a conceptual equivalence process, including forward and backward translations in duplicate to the original language. The content validity was assessed by inter-ratter-agreement (item-goal congruence index of Rovinelli-Hambleton). The adapted version was administered to patients with GAD according to DSM IV criteria and their respective controls, matched by age and sex, who were recruited at random in Mental Health and Primary Care centres to verify scale feasibility and potential understanding problems.
The inter-ratter reliability confirmed the correct inclusion of items in the corresponding dimension of GAD. The study sample consisted of 8 patients with GAD and 8 controls (62.5% male), mean age 50.38 years (SD=16.76). The average time to completion was 2’30”. No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to fill in the questionnaire. All the items, except item 5 (p=0,105), showed statistically significant differences among groups (p< 0.05).
After the adaptation process, a Spanish version of the GAD-7 scale was obtained, confirming its content validity, pertinence and adequacy of items in the Spanish cultural context. The brief time to completion precluded a fast and easy self-administration in the routine medical practice to promptly detect probable cases of GAD.
There is preliminary evidence that cognitive functioning is influenced by premorbid adjustment. The goal of this study was to examine to what extent premorbid adjustment patterns are related to cognitive functioning in a cohort of first-episode psychosis.
Seventy-seven neuroleptic-naïve patients with a first-episode of psychosis underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, 1 month and at 6 months of follow-up. Cognitive measurements included were: Verbal Fluency Test, Trail Making-B Test, Wechsler Memory Test, Reaction Time task, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) perseverative errors. Patterns of premorbid functioning were categorised in two groups: ‘stable-good’ group and ‘poor and declining’ group, using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale.
No significant associations were found between premorbid adjustment change scores and cognitive variables in the stable-good adjustment group. Patients with premorbid deterioration change score in premorbid adjustment between childhood and early adolescence was associated significantly with lower improvement at the follow-up in the Wechsler Memory Test (r=-0.511; p=0.009) and Reaction Time task (r=0.435; p=0.030). Moreover, change score in premorbid adjustment between early and late adolescence was significantly associated with lower improvement in perseverative errors (r=-0.455; p=0.022).
Deterioration of premorbid adjustment was significantly associated with lower improvement of cognitive improvement at the 6 months follow-up in a first episode psychosis. This lower cognitive improvement varied with the timing of the deterioration process in premorbid adjustment. Early adolescence premorbid deterioration was associated with less improvement in attentional and memory tasks. And premorbid deterioration in the late adolescence was related to lower improvement on executive tests.
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a psychiatric co-morbidity commonly related to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the real nature of this association is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of SAD in patients with a diagnosis of PD.
Eighty-seven consecutive patients with a diagnosis of PD and no associated dementia were evaluated at a movement disorder outpatient clinic. The patients were independently interviewed using the SCID-IV for DSM-IV.
Patient age ranged from 24 to 85 years (mean: 60.7 years) (+13.2). Forty-five patients (51.7%) were women and 42 (48.3%) were men. The lifelong prevalence of SAD was 32.2%. However, only 16.1% presented this anxiety disorder before the beginning of PD. The prevalence of SAD with onset after PD, i.e., secondary to a movement disorder, was 16.1%, with no sex differences in SAD prevalence among PD patients.
The high rate of SAD among PD patients detected in the present study (32.1%) is comparable to those reported in other countries. However, the prevalence of patients who presented SAD before the onset of PD (16.1%) was similar to that reported for the general population. Thus, the present results suggest that the high rates of SAD among PD patients reported in the literature are due to afraid to be judged in a negative manner in public due to their tremors and other aspects of PD, rather than being related to a specific neurobiological process occurring in this movement disorder.
New psychopharmacology provides a better tolerability profile and drug adherence, which should be accompanied by lower relapse rate, incomings and improvement in psychosocial functioning of patients.
1. To describe sociodemographic, clinical and psychometric properties of a sample of psychotic patients admitted to the Acute Unit. 2. Assessing the functionality of psychotic patients requiring hospitalization.
Sample:patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital Unit of the Hospital San Juan de Alicante (August 1 to 31, 2013), with admission diagnosis of psychotic decompensation (F20). Register of sociodemographic and clinical dates, PANSS, CGI and PSP. Statistical analysis using SPSS.
N=19. 94%=male, 84.2%=single, 68.4%=family support.37%=schizophrenia, 52.7%=brief reactive psychosis, 10.5%=schizophreniform disorder. 9.7% first psychotic episodes. 52.6%=toxic consumption. Mean scores:PSP = 50.89, CGI= 4.42, PANSS=89.89. Significant relationship between the support and PSP(35=not, 53=yes, p<0.015). Direct relationship between PANSS and CGI (p< 0.0001, 0.89R).
Although toxics, poor adherence or the long course of the disease are associated with unfavorable scores on scales of function and psychopathology, our results donnot meet it. We attribute the negative results to low sample size and heterogeneity of the group of patients included in the study. Maybe factors such as family support, employment and intellectual level have a greater role. We consider it appropriate to continue the study in the future, standardizing clinical groups and expanding the sample size in order to obtain results with greater statistical significance.
It is necessary to explore the possibilities of brief intervention of smoking cessation in bipolar disorder (BD) that may act on the level of motivation for change.
Assess the effectiveness of the 3 A's intervention (Ask, Advise and Assess) in a sample of euthymic BD patients.
260 patients diagnosed with BD that were in the euthymic phase and attended the Community care centers of Spain that have been evaluated for their history of smoking habits and current use.
Patients who consumed in the last month qualified for the level of motivation for change (measured by URICA scale); before and after conducting a brief intervention of no more than 30 minutes in total, divided in three contacts during a month, two face to face and one phone contact.
The 49% of the evaluated patients showed an actual use of cigarettes with an average of 28.73 (SD 11.82) years of consumption, with a mean consumption of 21.00 (SD 10.40) cigarettes per day and a level of nicotine dependency of 5.72 (SD 3.03). The 67% of patients were in the Contemplation stage of change, after the intervention 18% progressed to the stage of motivation and 14% ended up in the Stage of Ready for Change. In the third appointment the 21.4% of the smokers reported a reduction of the consumption.
The results seem to confirm its effectiveness, although it should be considered the possibility of carrying out specific tools of brief intervention for this sort of patients.
Numerous organic pathologies may appear as single or first psychiatric symptomatology manifestations. That is why we must perform a detailed exploration in these type of patients; anamnesis, a physical examination and supplementary tests.
This poster describes the case of a 24 year old woman who unexpectedly manifests behavioural disorders(psychomotor disinhibition, myoclonus, opsoclonus), speech disturbances (inconsistent content) and a decreased level of consciousness.
We highlight the importance of a sequentially well arranged full assessment and conclude with an accurate diagnosis. Additionaly, we emphasize on differential diagnosis something we ought to take into account in these patients.
Bibliographic review of a clinical case of limbic encephalitis Review.
This poster describes the case of a 24 year old woman who unexpectedly manifests behavioural disturbances (psychomotor deshibición, myoclonus, opsoclonus), speech disturbances (Inconsistent content) and a decreased level of consciousness.
These symptom characteristics are consistent with those we found in our literature review on this pathology (PubMed) and in addition it highlights the important of bearing in mind the organic pathology while examining psychiatric patients.
Organic mental disorders are conditions that we should keep in mind while making an initial psychiatric assessment.
Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a neurological condition that can present psychiatric symptoms, and that requires a complete organic diagnosis (biochemistry, blood count, urinary toxic, EEG, cranial CT and thoraco-abominopelvic, cranial MRI, CSF antibodies).
In order to perform a correct diagnostic it is crucial that we consider a couple of differential diagnosis.