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This study was conducted to characterize new plant type (NPT) traits among 650 genetically diverse rice genotypes of tropical japonica and indica and to establish an initial core set for NPT traits. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits assessed except flag length and width and leaf angles. Dendrogram categorized the genotypes into five distinct duration groups. Genotypes viz., Pumphamah, IRGC5097, IRGC37015, IRGC43741, IRGC50448, IRGC53089, IRGC39111, IRGC18021, Haorei Machang, IRGC44069, IRGC8269, Thangmoi, IRGC33130 and IRGC29772 were identified as possessing strong culm. Long panicles with a length of more than 35 cm were found in IRGC8269, IRGC9147, IRGC14694, IRGC19642, IRGC27435, IRGC39111, IRGC31051, IRGC26011and IRGC25892. Ideal leaf angle of NPT genotypes of 5°, 10° and 20° of flag leaf, 1st and 2nd leaves was not found in any genotype but with a combination of 5°, 10° and 10° was observed in IRGC63102 and IRGC66644. NPT flag leaf length and width of 50 and 2 cm, respectively, was seen in ‘Kemenya Kepeu’ and ‘IRGC29772’. High grain number of more than 350 was observed in IRGC53089, IRGC31063 and Azhoghi. A total of 72 genotypes were found with a combination of one or more ideal plant type traits of which, hierarchical cluster analysis based on genetic distances selected 32 as NPT core set. This core set will serve as an ideal genetic resource for breeding programs aimed at NPT development.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
Agriculture and livestock production systems are two major emitters of greenhouse gases. Methane with a GWP (global warming potential) of 21, and nitrous oxide (N2O) with a GWP of 300, are largely emitted from animal production agriculture, where livestock production is based on pasture and feed grains. The principal biological processes involved in N2O emissions are nitrification and denitrification. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the natural ability of certain plant species to release nitrification inhibitors from their roots that suppress nitrifier activity, thus reducing soil nitrification and N2O emission. Recent methodological developments (e.g. bioluminescence assay to detect BNIs in plant root systems) have led to significant advances in our ability to quantify and characterize the BNI function. Synthesis and release of BNIs from plants is a highly regulated process triggered by the presence of NH4+ in the rhizosphere, which results in the inhibitor being released precisely where the majority of the soil-nitrifier population resides. Among the tropical pasture grasses, the BNI function is strongest (i.e. BNI capacity) in Brachiaria sp. Some feed-grain crops such as sorghum also have significant BNI capacity present in their root systems. The chemical identity of some of these BNIs has now been established, and their mode of inhibitory action on Nitrosomonas has been characterized. The ability of the BNI function in Brachiaria pastures to suppress N2O emissions and soil nitrification potential has been demonstrated; however, its potential role in controlling N2O emissions in agro-pastoral systems is under investigation. Here we present the current status of our understanding on how the BNI functions in Brachiaria pastures and feed-grain crops such as sorghum can be exploited both genetically and, from a production system's perspective, to develop low-nitrifying and low N2O-emitting production systems that would be economically profitable and ecologically sustainable.
Mg doped ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films and the saturation magnetization (MS) increases at first as the film’s thickness increases and then decreases. The MS value as high as ∼15.76 emu/cm3 was achieved for the Mg-doped ZnO film of thickness 120 nm. The optical band gap of the films determined to be in the range 3.42 to 3.52 eV.
Pigeonpea is an important legume crop of the semi-arid tropics. In India, pigeonpea is mostly grown in areas prone to waterlogging, resulting in major production losses. It is imperative to identify genotypes that show tolerance at critical crop growth stages to prevent these losses. A selection of 272 diverse pigeonpea accessions was evaluated for seed submergence tolerance for different durations (0, 120, 144, 168 and 192 h) under in vitro conditions in the laboratory. All genotypes exhibited high (0·79–0·98) survival rates for up to 120 h of submergence. After 192 h of submergence, the hybrids as a group exhibited significantly higher survival rates (0·79) than the germplasm (0·71), elite breeding lines (0·68) and commercial varieties (0·58). Ninety-six genotypes representing the phenotypic variation observed during laboratory screening were further evaluated for waterlogging tolerance at the early seedling stage using pots, and survival rates were recorded for 8 days after completion of the stress treatment. Forty-nine of these 96 genotypes, representing the phenotypic variation for waterlogging tolerance, were chosen in order to evaluate their performance under natural field conditions. The following cultivated varieties and hybrids were identified as tolerant after three levels of testing (in vitro, in pots and in the field): ICPH 2431, ICPH 2740, ICPH 2671, ICPH 4187, MAL 9, LRG 30, Maruti, ICPL 20128, ICPL 332, ICPL 20237, ICPL 20238, Asha and MAL 15. These materials can be used as sources of waterlogging tolerance in breeding programmes.
This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the tribal population of randomly selected villages of Jabalpur district, Madhya Pradesh, central India. A total of 200 married men and women aged 15–49 years were interviewed to explore their knowledge, experience and health-seeking behaviour related to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Though 91% of respondents were aware of STIs, the sexual route was mentioned by only 19% as the route of transmission. Around 18% reported a need for social isolation from persons with STIs. Though 88% of the respondents felt modern medicine was the best remedy for STIs, only a few of them used medical treatment while suffering from an STI. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents resorted to traditional healers, and 30% utilized home remedies for STI treatment. The study highlights a need for generating STI awareness amongst the tribal population of the region through a needs-based behaviour change communication (BCC) strategy.
Swift heavy ion irradiation is one of the most versatile techniques to alter and monitor the properties of materials in general and at nanoscale in particular. The materials modification can be controlled by a suitable choice of ion beam parameters such as ion species, fluence and incident energy. It is also possible to choose these ion beam parameters in such a way that ion beam irradiation can cause annealing of defects or creation of defects at a particular depth. Here, we present a review of our work on swift heavy ion induced modifications of III-V semiconductor heterostructures and multi-quantum wells in addition to synthesis of Ge nanocrystals using atom beam co-sputtering, RF magnetron sputtering followed by RTA, swift heavy ion irradiation, respectively. We also present the growth of GeO2 nanocrystals by microwave annealing. These samples were studied by using XRD, Raman, PL, RBS and TEM. The observed results and their explanation using possible mechanisms are discussed in detail.
We report here swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation induced effects on structural and surface properties of III-nitrides. Tensile strained Al(1-x)InxN/GaN Hetero-Structures (HS) were realized using Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Despotion (MOCVD) technique with indium composition as 12%. Ion species and energies are chosen such that electronic energy deposition rates differ significantly in Al(1-x)InxN and are essential for understanding the ion beam interactions at the interfaces. Thus the samples were irradiated with 80 MeV Ni6+ and 100 MeV Ag7+ ions at varied fluence (1×1012 and 3 ×1012 ions/cm2) to alter the structural properties. Under this energy regime, the structural changes in Al(1-x)InxN would occur due to the intense ultrafast excitations of electrons along the ion path. We employed different characterization techniques like High Resolution X- ray Diffraction (HRXRD) and Rutherford back scattering spectrometry (RBS) for composition, thickness and strain. HRXRD and RBS experimental spectra have been fitted with Philip’s epitaxy SIMNRA code, which yields thickness and composition from compound semiconductors. The surface morphology of pristine and irradiated samples is studied and compared by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).
Ge nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix have been synthesized on Si substrate by co-sputtering of SiO2 and Ge using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The as-deposited films were subjected to microwave annealing at 800 and 9000C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the Ge composition and film thickness. The structural characterization was performed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. XRD measurements confirmed the formation of Ge nanocrystals. Raman scattering spectra showed a peak of Ge-Ge vibrational mode around 299 cm−1, which was caused by quantum confinement of phonons in the Ge nanocrystals. Surface morphology of the samples was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Variation of nanocrystal size with annealing temperature has been discussed. Advantages of microwave annealing are explained in detail.
We report on ‘in-situ’ solution processed homogeneous (200) oriented MgO ~85nm thin films deposited on Si substrates by inkjet printing. These films are found to show ferromagnetic order beyond room temperature with a saturation magnetization MS as high as ~0.63 emu/g. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations show the absence of any possible contamination effects, while the Mg 2p, and O 1s spectra indicate that the role of defect structure at the Mg site is important in the observed magnetism. By controlling the pH values of the precursors the concentration of the defects can be varied and hence tune the magnetization at room temperature. The origin of magnetism in these MgO thin films appears to arise from the cation vacancies.
Processing of YBa2Cu3O6+x superconducting samples by employing different precursor powder preparation techniques such as ball milling, attrition milling and also narrow particle size distribution powder preparation through coprecipitation by spraying will be discussed. CuO coated with oxalates shows the lowest resistance above T up to room temperature. The extent of corrosion by water has been studied by employing magnetic susceptibility, XPS and X-ray diffraction. Superconducting samples are affected to a considerable extent when treated in water at 60° C and the severity of the attack increases with time.
Be, S, Si, and Ne implantations were performed at room temperature into InSb layers grown on undoped semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The implant damage in InSb is of ntype behavior. The implanted material was subjected to both isochronal and isothermal annealing schemes using a molybdenum strip heater. A maximum p-type activation of 90 % and si-type activation of 16 % was achieved for Be and S implants, respectively. Si implant has an amphoteric doping behavior.
Wacker polycrystalline silicon shows enhanced grain boundary activity after a high temperature (950° C) anneal. It is possible to passivate this effect in a hydrogen plasma. The low temperature (600° C) processing of MIS technology does not activate grain boundaries or deteriorate a passivated specimen. Activated grain boundaries with MIS structures can be used to assess the character of recombination currents. It is concluded that MIS processing is advantageous for passivated polycrystalline silicon.
Polymers of Benzidine were synthesized by hydrogen peroxide reaction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase enzyme. The polymerization reaction was carried out at room temperature in a monophasic organic solvent with a small amount of water at pH 7.5.
The technique of degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) with nanosecond and picosecond pulses was employed to measure the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ. The samples were studied in solution in Dimethyl sulfoxide:Methanol in volume ratio 4:1. The observed values are of order 10−9 to 10−8esu. Measurements on a thin film agree approximately with the extrapolated values fron solution measurements. Picosecond time resolved measurements indicate a pulse-width limited response followed by a small slow component. Investigation of the total energy transmission as a function of the incident intensity and fluence at 532 nm for pico- and nanosecond pulses indicates reverse saturable absorption. As we observe the nanosecond and picosecond curves to be superimposed for the intensity plot but not for fluence, we conclude that the nonlinearity is predominantly due to two-photon absorption. Numerical analysis of the data yields a value of 12.25 cm/GW for the two-photon absorption coefficient β. The imaginary component of χ obtained is 5 × 10−9esu. The material appears to be a good candidate for applications in optical power limiting and switching.
Studies of the evolution of electrical resistance in an external applied magnetic field, B, as well as with temperature, T, on Cu86Co14 and Cu92Co8 as quenched and annealed melt-spun ribbons, reveal that magnetoresistance, MR, ΔR(B,T)=R(B)-R(0) scales with B/T. Furthermore, it found that annealing up to 600 °C scales the magnetic moment of the Co-rich superparamagnetic nanoparticles such that, the data for the field dependence of the MR obtained at various temperatures collapses onto the same unique and universal curve f(mB/T) with the Langevin variable mB/T governing the overall behaviour.
Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ferroelectric thin film capacitors were fabricated with metallic platinum and conducting Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) contacts. PZT thin films were fabricated using metallorganic decomposition (MOD) while a combination of MOD and RF-sputtering was used in fabricating the ITO-PZT-ITO capacitors. Photo-induced changes, manifested by an increase in switchable polarization, were studied before and after 108 switching cycles fatigue using white and monochromatic light. An increase in photo-induced changes was observed at 3.65eV light energies using monochromatic light using both capacitors. The increase was attributed to the excitation of electrons from PZT valence band into the conduction band causing an increase in film conductivity. However, polarization increase in Pt-PZT-Pt capacitor was more pronounced than ITO-PZT-ITO when white light was used. Some of the response in fatigued Pt-PZT-Pt capacitors was attributed to the excitation of electrons from the platinum Fermi level to oxygen vacancy sites trapped at the Pt-PZT interface by absorption of infrared radiation of white light. The latter observation implied a relationship between PZT fatigue and photo-induced effects.