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The types and undescribed material of the hymenopteran fossils of the Insect Bed of the Bembridge Marls from the Isle of Wight (UK) are critically revised and studied. A total of 1460 fossils are recorded and attributed to 20 families: Gasteruptiidae s.l. (1); Proctotrupidae (3); Diapriidae (24); Cynipidae (7); Figitidae (6); Pteromalidae (1); Agaonidae (3); Scelionidae (12); Platygastridae (2); Ichneumonidae (32); Braconidae (75); Bethylidae (3); Crabronidae (2); Sphecidae (1); Apidae (2); Scoliidae (1); Tiphiidae (2); Vespidae (4); and Formicidae (1220). Described as new are 51 species, 13 genera, two tribes and two subfamilies. Minimum number of species recorded (either as described species or representing higher taxa with no described species in the assemblage) is 118. The composition of the hymenopteran assemblage is most similar to that of Baltic amber and indicative of a well forested territory, as well as of a humid, equable (aseasonal but not very hot) climate, more typically equable than in the Baltic amber source area, judging from the absence of Aphidiinae and scarcity of aphids.
The ballooning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes have been often suggested as a possible instability trigger of the substorm onset, and a mechanism of compressional waves in the outer magnetosphere and magnetotail. Commonly, these disturbances are characterized by the local dispersion equation that is widely applied for the description of ultra-low-frequency oscillatory disturbances and instabilities in the nightside magnetosphere. In realistic situations, especially in the inner magnetosphere, the magnetospheric plasma is composed of two components: background ‘cold’ plasma and ‘hot’ particles. The ballooning disturbances in a two-component plasma immersed into a curved magnetic field are described with the system of coupled equations for the Alfvén and slow magnetosonic (SMS) modes. We have reduced the basic system of MHD equations to the dispersion equation for the small-scale in transverse direction disturbances, and applied WKB approximation along a field line. As a result, we have derived a dispersion equation that can be used for geophysical applications. In particular, from this relationship the dispersion, instability threshold, and stop-bands of the Alfvén and SMS modes in two-component plasma have been examined.
Microwave and far infrared (FIR) spectra of atoms and molecules are in general more sensitive to the variation of the fundamental constants than optical spectra. For example, FIR transitions between levels of the ground state multiplet 3PJ of Carbon-like ions are sensitive to α-variation, (Levshakov et al. (2008)). Moreover, sensitivities of the transitions (1-0) and (2-1) are different, (Kozlov et al. (2008)). This allows to study α-variation by comparing apparent redshifts for these two transitions of the same ion and significantly reduce systematic errors from the Doppler noise.
Current theories that seek to unify gravity with the other fundamental interactions suggest that spatial and temporal variation of fundamental constants is a possibility, or even a necessity, in an expanding Universe. Several studies have tried to probe the values of constants at earlier stages in the evolution of the Universe, using tools such as big-bang nucleosynthesis, the Oklo natural nuclear reactor, quasar absorption spectra, and atomic clocks (see, e.g. Flambaum & Berengut (2009)).
EURECA (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) is an
astro-particle physics facility aiming to directly detect galactic dark
matter. The Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane has been selected as host
laboratory. The EURECA collaboration unites CRESST, EDELWEISS and the
Spanish-French experiment ROSEBUD, thus concentrating and focussing effort
on cryogenic detector research in Europe into a single facility. EURECA will
use a target mass of up to one ton, enough to explore WIMP – nucleon scalar
scattering cross sections in the region of 10-9 – 10-10 picobarn.
A major advantage of EURECA is the planned use of more than just one target
material (multi target experiment for WIMP identification).
A detailed experimental study on the formation of crossflow vortex mode packets and their high-frequency secondary instability in a swept-wing boundary layer was carried out. Stationary vortex packets are most likely to be generated under natural flight conditions and transition to turbulence is quickest within these disturbances. In the present experiments, different methods of controlled excitation are used so that the crossflow vortex packets are generated by surface-roughness elements and by localized continuous suction. It is found that as the stationary disturbance reaches a significant amplitude, of about 10% of the free-stream velocity, while being below the saturation level, high-frequency secondary instabilities start to grow. Influence of the crossflow vortex packet magnitude on the development of the secondary instability is investigated in detail and below its threshold the crossflow vortex packet was found to be nearly neutrally stable. By studying the unstable packets, the frequency of natural secondary perturbations was identified and the travelling disturbances were forced in a controlled manner by periodic blowing–suction applied locally under the stationary vortex. Two modes of secondary instability were found to develop and the preferred mode was dependent on the properties of the primary stationary disturbance. Additionally, the underlying physics of the process of nonlinear formation and development of the vortices in the boundary layer is clarified. It was observed that the large-amplitude co-rotating vortices may interact, thus reducing their amplitude. Also a large-scale excitation by an isolated roughness element produced two individual stationary crossflow vortex packets at its tips, each with different preferred secondary instability modes.
We typed 1801 males from 55 locations for the Y-specific binary markers YAP, DYZ3, SRY10831
and the (CA)n microsatellites YCAII and DYS413. Phylogenetic relationships of chromosomes with
the same binary haplotype were condensed in seven large one-step networks, which accounted for
95% of all chromosomes. Their coalescence ages were estimated based on microsatellite diversity.
The three largest and oldest networks undergo sharp frequency changes in three areas. The more
recent network 3.1A clearly discriminates between Western and Eastern European populations.
Pairwise Fst showed an overall increment with increasing geographic distance but with a slope
greatly reduced when compared to previous reports. By sectioning the entire data set according to
geographic and linguistic criteria, we found higher Fst-on-distance slopes within Europe than in
West Asia or across the two continents.
A new technique for the deposition of amorphous organic thin films, low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD), was used to fabricate organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) and optically pumped organic lasers. The OLED consisted of a film of aluminum tris- (8 hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) grown on the surface of a film of N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3- methylphenyl)1–l'biphenyl-4–4'diamine (TPD). Growth on both glass and polyester substrates was accomplished and the resulting heterojunction devices were found to have a performance similar to conventional, small molecular weight OLEDs grown using thermal evaporation in vacuum. The LP-OVPD grown OLED has an external quantum efficiency of 0.40 ± 0.05% and a turn-on voltage of approximately 6V. The optically pumped organic laser consisted of a film of Alq3 doped with the laser dye, benzoic acid, 2-[6-(ethylamino)-3-(ethylimino)-2,7-dimethyl-3Hxanthen- 9-yl]-ethyl ester, monohydrochloride (Rhodamine 6G). The laser output was centered at approximately 610nm and the lasing threshold was 30μJcm−2. The rapid throughput of LP-OVPD and its use of low vacuum in a horizontal reactor demonstrate its potential to facilitate low cost, roll-to-roll deposition of organic films for many photonic device applications.
An experimental study of the effect of riblets on three-dimensional nonlinear structures, the so-called Λ-vortices on laminar-turbulent transition showed that riblets delay the transformation of the Λ-vortices into turbulent spots and shift the point of transition downstream. This result is opposite to the negative influence of such ribbed surfaces on two-dimensional linear Tollmien-Schlichting waves (the linear stage of transition). Thus, the ribbed surface influences laminar-turbulent transition structures differently: a negative influence on the linear-stage transition structures and a positive influence on the nonlinear-stage transition structures. It is demonstrated that transition control by means of riblets requires special attention to be paid to the choice of their location, taking into account the stage of transition.
The modification of the mean and fluctuating characteristics of a flat-plate boundary layer subjected to nearly isotropic free stream turbulence (FST) is studied experimentally using hot-wire anemometry. The study is focussed on the region upstream of the transition onset, where the fluctuations inside the boundary layer are dominated by elongated flow structures which grow downstream both in amplitude and length. Their downstream development and scaling are investigated and the results are compared with those obtained by previous authors. This allows some conclusions about the parameters which are relevant for the modelling of the transition process. The mechanisms underlying the transition process and the relative importance of the Tollmien–Schlichting wave instability in this flow are treated in an accompanying paper (part 2 of the present report).
The natural occurrence of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves has so far only been observed in boundary layers subjected to moderate levels of free stream turbulence (Tu < 1%), owing to the difficulty in detecting small-amplitude waves in highly perturbed boundary layers. By introducing controlled oscillations with a vibrating ribbon, it is possible to study small-amplitude waves using phase-selective filtering techniques. In the present work, the effect of TS-waves on the transition is studied at Tu = 1.5%. It is demonstrated that TS-waves can exist and develop in a similar way as in an undisturbed boundary layer. It is also found that TS-waves with quite small amplitudes are involved in nonlinear interactions which lead to a regeneration of TS-waves in the whole unstable frequency band. This results in a significant increase in the number of turbulent spots, which promote the onset of turbulence.