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Centrorynchus nahuelhuapensis n. sp. is described from the intestine of Strix rufipes, the rufous-legged owl, in Patagonia, Argentina. This species is characterized by the presence of 31–33 hook rows with 16–17 hooks per row, distributed as follows: 5 true hooks, 4 transitional hooks with 4 alate processes, more evident in the first three, 7–8 spiniform hooks, and three cement glands. It differs from most members of the genus by having a filiform body, the arrangement and size of the hooks, the number of cement glands, and egg size. Part of the SSU and LSU genes were sequenced and compared to those in GenBank. Sequences are most similar to other species of Centrorhynchus, supporting their placement within this genus. We present the first molecular study for a species of Centrorhynchus from South America. Additionally, it is the second species of the genus described in Argentina, and the first species of a terrestrial acanthocephalan from a bird in Patagonia.
The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), 2 (BVDV-2), and HoBi-like (HoBiPeV) are endemic among Brazilian cattle, the world's largest commercial bovine herd. In the last two decades (1998–2018) over 300 bovine pestiviruses have been partially or fully sequenced in Brazil, including viruses from different regions, different epidemiological backgrounds, and associated with diverse clinical presentations. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses demonstrated a predominance of BVDV-1 (54.4%), with subgenotypes −1a (33.9% of total) and −1b (16.3%) being more frequent and subgenotypes −1d, −1e, and −1i at very low frequencies. The overall BVDV-2 frequency was 25.7% but it varied largely by region, reaching up to 48% in Southern states. BVDV-2b was the predominant subgenotype (84.8% of BVDV-2), followed by BVDV-2a (8.86%). HoBiPeV accounted for 19.9% (61/307) of the genotyped viruses and were detected at high frequency in cattle from Northeastern states. These findings demonstrate a unique mix of pestivirus species and subgenotypes, unlike that seen in Europe or North America. The design of effective diagnostic tools, vaccines, and control programs for limiting bovine pestivirus infections in Brazil must take into consideration this unique mix of viruses. This article provides a critical review of two decades of genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazil.
People with psychotic disorders face impairments in their global functioning and their quality of life (QoL). The relationship between the two outcomes has not been systematically investigated. Through a systematic review, we aim to explore the presence and extent of associations between global functioning and QoL and establish whether associations depend on the instruments employed.
In May 2016, ten electronic databases were searched using a two-phase process to identify articles in which associations between global functioning and QoL were assessed. Basic descriptive data and correlation coefficients between global functioning and QoL instruments were extracted, with the strength of the correlation assessed according to the specifications of Cohen 1988. Results were reported with reference to the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines and PRISMA standards. A narrative synthesis was performed due to heterogeneity in methodological approaches.
Of an initial 15 183 non-duplicate articles identified, 756 were deemed potentially relevant, with 40 studies encompassing 42 articles included. Fourteen instruments for measuring global functioning and 22 instruments for measuring QoL were used. Twenty-nine articles reported linear associations while 19 assessed QoL predictors. Correlations between overall scores varied in strength, primarily dependent on the QoL instrument employed, and whether QoL was objectively or subjectively assessed. Correlations observed for objective QoL measures were consistently larger than those observed for subjective measures, as were correlations for an interviewer than self-assessed QoL. When correlations were assessed by domains of QoL, the highest correlations were found for social domains of QoL, for which most correlations were moderate or higher. Global functioning consistently predicted overall QoL as did depressive and negative symptoms.
This review is the first to explore the extent of associations between global functioning and QoL in people with psychotic disorders. We consistently found a positive association between global functioning and QoL. The strength of the association was dependent on the QoL instrument employed. QoL domains strongly associated with global functioning were highlighted. The review illustrates the extensive array of instruments used for the assessment of QoL and to a lesser extent global functioning in people with psychotic disorders and provides a framework to understand the different findings reported in the literature. The findings can also inform the future choice of instruments by researchers and/or clinicians. The observed associations reassure that interventions for improving global functioning will have a positive impact on the QoL of people living with a psychotic disorder.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus linked to mucosal and cutaneous carcinogenesis. More than 200 different HPV types exist. We carried out a transversal study to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in two regions of Mexico. A total of 724 genital and non-genital samples from women (F) and men (M) were studied; 241 (33%) from North-Eastern (NE) and 483 (66%) from South-Central (SC) Mexico. The overall prevalence was 87%. In genital lesions from females, the NE group showed a prevalence of HPV types 16 (37%), 6 (13%), 59 (6%), 11, 18 and 66 (5.4% each); and the SC group showed types 6 (17%), 16 (15%), 11 (14.5%), 18 (12%) and 53 (6%). In the genital lesions from males, NE group showed types 16 (38%), 6 (21%), 11 (13%) and 59 plus 31 (7.5%) and the SC group showed types 6 (25%), 11 (22%), 18 (17%) and 16 (11.5%). When the two regions were compared, a higher prevalence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 was found in the SC region and of high-risk HPV 59, 31 and 66 (the latter can also be present in benign lesions) in the NE region. Our findings complement efforts to understand HPV demographics as a prerequisite to guide and assess the impact of preventive interventions.
The Learning Health System Network clinical data research network includes academic medical centers, health-care systems, public health departments, and health plans, and is designed to facilitate outcomes research, pragmatic trials, comparative effectiveness research, and evaluation of population health interventions.
The Learning Health System Network is 1 of 13 clinical data research networks assembled to create, in partnership with 20 patient-powered research networks, a National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network.
Results and Conclusions
Herein, we describe the Learning Health System Network as an emerging resource for translational research, providing details on the governance and organizational structure of the network, the key milestones of the current funding period, and challenges and opportunities for collaborative science leveraging the network.
Three methacrylic polymers bearing (phenylene)azobenzene moieties in the side-chain were synthesized via free-radical polymerization of monomer (E)-6-(4-((3’-cyano-4’-(hexyloxy) -[1,1’- biphenyl]-4-yl) diazenyl) phenoxy) hexyl methacrylate using 1, 5 and 10 mol% of 1,1’-azobis(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) (ABCN) as initiator. The chemical structures of monomer and polymers were confirmed by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. Analysis by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed average molecular weights (Mw) of 1.0x105, 7.3x104, and 4.5x104 g/mol for polymers P1%, P5%, and P10%, respectively. These results indicate a clear dependence of the Mw on the amount of initiator used; the higher the amount of ABCN, the lowest the molecular mass. Thermotropic liquid-crystalline properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). All polymers showed a liquid-crystalline behavior over a wide range of temperatures (>100°C) displaying smectic type mesophases. A small shift (around 8°C) upwards in the clearing temperature was observed on increasing the molecular masses from P10% to P1%. The trans-cis photo-isomerization of polymers was studied in solution and in thin films by UV-Vis spectroscopy. High cis-isomer contents in solution (>90%) were reached in relative short irradiation times.
The aim of this study was to monitor the spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence in Spain during the 2009 pandemic and the following two influenza seasons 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 using a Bayesian Poisson mixed regression model; and implement this model of geographical analysis in the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System to obtain maps of influenza incidence for every week. In the pandemic wave the maps showed influenza activity spreading from west to east. The 2010–2011 influenza epidemic wave plotted a north-west/south-east pattern of spread. During the 2011–2012 season the spread of influenza was geographically heterogeneous. The most important source of variability in the model is the temporal term. The model of spatio-temporal spread of influenza incidence is a supplementary tool of influenza surveillance in Spain.
Reproductive effects from phthalate exposure have been documented mostly in animal studies. This study explored the association between prenatal exposure to phthalate metabolites, anogenital distance and penile measurements in male newborns in Toluca, State of Mexico. A total of 174 pregnant women provided urine samples for phthalate analysis during their last prenatal visit, and the 73 who gave birth to male infants were included in the study. The 73 male newborns were weighed and measured using standardized methods after delivery. After adjusting for creatinine and supine length at birth, significant inverse associations were observed between an index of prenatal exposure to total phthalate exposure and the distance from the anus to anterior base of the penis (β = −0.191 mm per 1 μg/l, P = 0.037), penile width (β = −0.0414, P = 0.050) and stretched length (β = −0.2137, P = 0.034); prenatal exposure to mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate exposure was associated with a reduction in the stretched length of the penis (β = −0.2604, P = 0.050). Human exposure to phthalates is a public health concern, and the system most vulnerable to its potential effects seems to be the immature male reproductive tract.
1-3 BaTiO3-PVDF hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by combining electrospinning, sol-gel and spin-coating techniques. First, one-dimensional structures of barium titanate (BaTiO3) were obtained by electrospinning. An alcoholic solution consisting of Ba2+ and Ti4+ions (1:1 molar ratio) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) was electrospun at 15 kV, with a tip-to-collector distance of 15 cm and a feed rate of 0.5 mL/h. Ceramic fibers were obtained after sintering the as-spun fibers at 900 °C for 2 hours. In a second step, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was incorporated to the oxide fibers by spin-coating a dimetilformamide solution, thus conforming 1-3 ceramic-polymeric hybrid nanocomposites on stainless steel substrates.
Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the as-spun fibers were smooth, long and continuous with an average diameter of 155 ± 40 nm, ranging from 60 to 240 nm, while sintered fibers presented a reduction in size, with an average diameter of 115 ± 16 nm, ranging from 96 to 120 nm. Sintered nanofibers were also long and continuous but with a rough surface. X-ray diffraction confirmed the perovskite-type structure of the BaTiO3. A structure refinement revealed a degree of tetragonality of 1.0046.
The polymer crystalline phases were identified by infrared spectroscopy on ATR mode. This study showed the presence of both β and γ polar phases, and absence of non-polar α phase, according to the characteristic bands for such crystalline phases.
The nanocomposites exhibited a ferroelectric behavior and electrical polarization according to their ceramic and polymeric components.
Several European countries have timely all-cause mortality monitoring. However, small changes in mortality may not give rise to signals at the national level. Pooling data across countries may overcome this, particularly if changes in mortality occur simultaneously. Additionally, pooling may increase the power of monitoring populations with small numbers of expected deaths, e.g. younger age groups or fertile women. Finally, pooled analyses may reveal patterns of diseases across Europe. We describe a pooled analysis of all-cause mortality across 16 European countries. Two approaches were explored. In the ‘summarized’ approach, data across countries were summarized and analysed as one overall country. In the ‘stratified’ approach, heterogeneities between countries were taken into account. Pooling using the ‘stratified’ approach was the most appropriate as it reflects variations in mortality. Excess mortality was observed in all winter seasons albeit slightly higher in 2008/09 than 2009/10 and 2010/11. In the 2008/09 season, excess mortality was mainly in elderly adults. In 2009/10, when pandemic influenza A(H1N1) dominated, excess mortality was mainly in children. The 2010/11 season reflected a similar pattern, although increased mortality in children came later. These patterns were less clear in analyses based on data from individual countries. We have demonstrated that with stratified pooling we can combine local mortality monitoring systems and enhance monitoring of mortality across Europe.
Protein kinases (PKs) of parasitic protozoa are being evaluated as drug targets. A large number of protein kinases within the protein kinome of Entamoeba histolytica strongly suggest that protein phosphorylation is a key component of pathogenesis regulation by this parasite. PI3 K and Src are kinases previously described in this parasite, but their role is poorly understood. Here, the effect of Src-1-inhibitor and PI3 K inhibitor (Wortmannin) on the virulence factors of E. histolytica was evaluated. Results show that both inhibitors affect the actin cytoskeleton and the amoebic movement. Also, the proteolytic activity is diminished by Wortmannin, but not by Src-inhibitor-1; however, the phagocytic capacity is diminished by Wortmannin and Src-1-inhibitor. Finally, we found that the virulence in vivo of E. histolytica is affected by Wortmannin but not by Src-1-inhibitor. This study opens the way for the design of anti-amoebic drugs based on kinase inhibition.
Transparent, nanophase-separated, inorganic-organic hybrid polymers with dielectric constants below 3.0 have been prepared from reactively functionalized poly(amic ester) derivatives and substituted, oligomeric silsesquioxanes. These hybrid materials are stable to 400 °C and above and form tough, crack-free films. Induced cracking and crack propagation studies performed with the application of external stress suggest a maximum critical film thickness of at least 2.0 μm under severe stress conditions. These hybrid materials appear to be significantly toughened by the chemical incorporation of the polyimides relative to organically modified silicates and spin-on-glasses without significantly effecting other important polymer properties of the silicates.
In this research nanometric particles from luminescent (625nm) porous silicon film were synthesized. This particles were later inoculated in bacterial strains of B. subtilis (BSi) and K. pneumoniae (KSi). A comparison of the behavior of their growth curve and the ones reported for C. xerosis (XSi) and E. coli (ESi) in presence of silicon nanoparticles is presented. The growth curve of BSi, as well as the KSi, present changes compared to their standard curves. The BSi growth curve grows below the standard curve after the fifth hour, while in the KSi this happens after the eighth hour. Based on our preliminary findings we can speculate that at this point in time a critical population is present, and this may give rise to the possible incorporation of the silicon particles by the bacteria, or a possible pleomorphism inhibits reproduction. The stationary region, in both cases, takes place sooner than in the standard curve. No significant oscillations are observed in any case, which differs form the XSi curve, were oscillations of intervals of almost 1 hour were reported. In addition, these curves have a different behavior when compared to the ESi growth curve, in which no significant differences between the standard and the particle containing sample were reported.
The pollution caused by heavy metals is one of the major environmental problems that is imperative to be solved. New technologies, easy to implement and to adapt to any system, deserve special attention and are a focus of this work the ability of Chlorella sp. and E. coli genetically engineered with mice metallothionein I, both immobilized in alginate of calcium to remove Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch assays for the treatment of diluted aqueous solutions. The kinetics, sorption capacities and sorption percentage were determined. The influence of metal concentration in solution is discussed in the terms of Langmuir isotherm and constants. Sorption capacities increased with increasing metal concentration in solution. For solution containing 300 mg/L of metal, the observed uptake capacities were 94.941±1.094 mgCd/gChlorella., 24.076±2.292 mgCd/gE.coli and 239.17±2.478 mgPb/gChlorella, 37.952±4.245 mgPb/gE.coli. The Langmuir constants to Chlorella sp. were qmax=285.72(mgPb/g), b=0.0276(l/mgPb), qmax=103.65(mgCd/g) and b=0.0005(l/mgCd) while to E. coli were qmax=28.141(mgPb/g), b=0.113(l/mgPb), qmax=24.272(mgCd/g) and b =0.019(l/mgCd). The biomass of the algae showed to have better capacity of metallic sorption that the biomass of the bacteria genetically engineering. The study proved that microorganisms biomass is a suitable material for the removal of the studied heavy metals ions from aqueous solutions, achieving removal efficiencies higher than 90%, and could be considered as a potential material for treating effluent polluted with Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions.
Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of pulverized SiO2:V monoliths synthesized by a solgel method, and annealed at 1273 K during 12 h under air, are presented in this work. Characteristics TL glow curves display a complex shape with at least three maxima located at ˜379, ˜543 and ˜591K. The TL total signal exhibited a linear behavior for doses below 400 Gy. The integrated TL fades down 26 % after 3 h elapsed between irradiation and the corresponding TL readout. These results lead to conclude that annealed SiO2:V is a promising material for ionizing radiation detection and dosimetry.
We present preliminary reflection extended X-ray absorption fine structure results on reactive magnetron sputtering molybdenum nitride (MoN) layered samples, with different compositions and surface layer thickness. The results obtained over a wide range of incidence angles show significant differences between two samples where the outer layer is either Mo metal or MoN.