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Social support networks, with greater support from families, friends and communities are linked to better health. Also, due to the present economic condition they might be the only solution for rehabilitation in patients with lower income.
Aim: To investigate the way that social support network can help patients with rehabilitation after hospitalization.
All patients that were referred to the social workers network from 2012-2013 were assessed in order to find those who seek rehabilitation programmes. Analysis was performed with SPSS21.
143 patients, 100(69.9%) males, 81(71.7%) with lower education were referred for rehabilitation and poverty reasons. 117(81.8%) were Greeks 75(52.4%) single, 99(69.2%) had no insurance and 125(87.4%) unemployed. The referrals were made mostly from social hospices (N=71) and the hospital clinics(N=59), while the amount of patients was almost identical for the two years(47.6% for 2013 and 50.4% for 2012 respectively). The main reason for the referral was poverty(N=117 81.8%), poverty and health problems(N=22 18.4%), psychiatric problems(N=2 1.4%) and HIV(N=2 1.4%). In the majority of the cases(N=106 74.1%) there was a successful result in finding a rehabilitation hospice. Finally, there was a statistical significant difference between those that had family-support(N=47) and those that didn't(N=96) in the referrals amount (x2=10.894 p=.02).
Results indicates that family is a protective factor against social support need, but due to the economic condition and new family bonds, a growing number of people still needing help, even if they have a family that could support them, something that should be further investigated.
Treatment adherence has a vital role in the patient's health outcome as poor adherence rates can reduce, even diminish, the effectiveness of the treatment as well as lead to a waste of the health care system's valuable resources. Previous research has shown that perceptions of treatment strongly affect adherence in psychiatric patients.
To investigate how the perceptions of treatment affect adherence during hospitalization in psychiatric patients.
Fifty psychiatric patients participated in this research, 21 (42%) males and 29 (58%) females. Out of them, 25 (50%) had been diagnosed with depression, 15 (30%) with psychosis, 6 (12%) with psychosis and depressive symptomatology and 4 (8%) with bipolar disorder.
The findings showed a significant effect of psychotherapy on treatment adherence (χ2 = 4.915, P = 0.027), with 7 out of 11 patients who undertook psychotherapy reporting good adherence rates compared to 12 out of 39 patients who did not. Gender had a significant effect on adherence (χ2 = 5.96, P = 0.05), with females reporting better adherence compared to males. Perception of treatment did not correlate significantly with adherence (χ2 = 0.439, P > 0.05) and neither did education (χ2 = 2.22, P > 0.05). Also, neither age (F(2,47) = 1.535, P > 0.05) nor hospitalization time (F(2,47) = 1.131, P > 0.05) correlated significantly with adherence to treatment.
Even though there was no significant correlation between perceptions of treatment and adherence, psychotherapy seems to improve adherence to therapy during hospitalization and is also correlated with positive perceptions of treatment, something which will be valuable for the patient even after the hospitalization.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Differences between the most frequently reported diagnoses of Greek people and immigrants in Greece are expected due to the different underlying factors which are associated with mental health issues.
Examine differences in diagnoses between Greek people and immigrants.
To investigate whether Greek people and immigrants had significant differences with regard to reported diagnoses in a Greek hospital.
The patients who participated in this study are 5551, among them 2760 (49.7%) were males and 2791 (50.3%) were females. The mean age of the sample was 45.54. The sample consisted of 455 (8.3%) immigrants and 5,042 (91.7%) Greek people. Convenience sampling method was used and the sample was collected at the General Hospital of Nikaia, “Ag. Panteleimon” in Athens, Greece, between 01/01/2012 and 31/12/2015.
There were significant differences between Greek people and immigrant with regard to diagnosis as χ2 (20): 136.875, P < 0.001. More specifically, among Greek people, the most frequently reported diagnosis was psychotic disorder (26.2%), followed by depression (24.7%), general anxiety disorder (9.9%) and substance abuse (8.4%). Among immigrants, the most frequently reported diagnosis was psychotic disorder (22.9%), followed by substance abuse (21.3%), depression (17.4%) and general anxiety disorder (12.1%).
The differences between Greek people and immigrants with regard to diagnoses showcase the different needs between the two populations with regard to mental health. Especially, the higher prevalence of anxiety disorders and substance abuse problems among immigrants highlight the need for protective measures to improve their well-being and reduce their risk of mental health issues.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We present the first results of the MINDVIEW project. An innovative imaging system for the human brain examination, allowing simultaneous acquisition of PET/MRI images, has been designed and constructed. It consists of a high sensitivity and high resolution PET scanner integrated in a novel, head-dedicated, radio frequency coil for a 3T MRI scanner. Preliminary measurements from the PET scanner show sensitivity 3 times higher than state-of-the-art PET systems that will allow safe repeated studies on the same patient. The achieved spatial resolution, close to 1 mm, will enable differentiation of relevant brain structures for schizophrenia. A cost-effective and simple method of radiopharmaceutical production from 11C-carbon monoxide and a mini-clean room has been demonstrated. It has been shown that 11C-raclopride has higher binding potential in a new VAAT null mutant mouse model of schizophrenia compared to wild type control animals. A significant reduction in TSPO binding has been found in gray matter in a small sample of drug-naïve, first episode psychosis patients, suggesting a reduced number or an altered function of immune cells in brain at early stage schizophrenia.
The aims of the current report are to present the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics/biochemical indices and lifestyle habits of the population and to explore the potential association of exclusive olive oil consumption, in relation to lifestyle factors, with coronary artery disease risk.
Demographic, lifestyle, dietary and biochemical variables were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to estimate the relative risks of developing coronary artery disease.
The Hellenic study of Interactions between Single nucleotide polymorphisms and Eating in Atherosclerosis Susceptibility (THISEAS), a medical centre-based case–control study conducted in Greek adults.
We consecutively enrolled 1221 adult patients with coronary artery disease and 1344 adult controls.
A higher prevalence of the conventional established risk factors was observed in cases than in controls. Physical activity level was higher in controls (1·4 (sd 0·2) than in cases (1·3 (sd 0·3); P<0·001). Regarding current and ex-smokers, the case group reported almost double the pack-years of the control group (54·6 (sd 42·8) v. 28·3 (sd 26·3), respectively; P<0·001). Exclusive olive oil consumption was associated with 37 % lower likelihood of developing coronary artery disease, even after taking into account adherence to the Mediterranean diet (OR=0·63; 95 % CI 0·42, 0·93; P=0·02).
Exclusive olive oil consumption was associated with lower risk of coronary artery disease, even after adjusting for adoption of an overall healthy dietary pattern such as the Mediterranean diet.
This three-year period has seen considerable activity in the Commission, with a wide range of applications of radial velocities as well as a significant push toward higher precision. The latter has been driven in large part by the exciting research on extrasolar planets. This field is now on the verge of detecting Earth-mass bodies around nearby stars, as demonstrated by recent work summarized below, and radial velocities continue to play a central role.
This study deals with the simulation of the experimental study of Roth
et al. (2000) on the interaction of
energetic Zn projectiles in partially ionized laser produced carbon
targets, and with similar type experiments. Particular attention is paid
to the specific contributions of the K and L shell target electrons to
electron recombination in the energetic Zn ionic projectile. The classical
Bohr–Lindhard model was used for describing recombination, while
quantum mechanical models were also introduced for scaling the L to K
cross-section ratios. It was found that even for a hydrogen-like carbon
target, the effect of the missing five bound electrons brings about an
increase of only 0.6 charge units in the equilibrium charge state as
compared to the cold target value of 23. A collisional radiative
calculation was employed for analyzing the type of plasma produced in the
experimental study. It was found that for the plasma conditions
characteristic of this experiment, some fully ionized target plasma atoms
should be present. However in order to explain the experimentally observed
large increase in the projectile charge state a very dominant component of
the fully ionized plasma must comprise the target plasma. A procedure for
calculating the dynamic evolvement of the projectile charge state within
partially ionized plasma is also presented and applied to the type of
plasma encountered in the experiment of Roth et al. (2000). The low temperature and density tail on the
back of the target brings about a decrease in the exiting charge state,
while the value of the average charge state within the target is dependent
on the absolute value of the cross-sections.
We study the details of a gradual change in electron properties from
those of a nearly-free-electron (NFE) metal to those of a strongly-coupled
plasma, in ultrashort pulse energy deposition in solid metal targets. Time
scales shorter than those of a target surface layer expansion are
considered. Both the case of an optical laser (visible or near infrared
wavelengths range) and of a free electron laser (vacuum ultraviolet or
X-ray) are treated. The mechanisms responsible for the change in electron
behavior are isochoric melting, lattice charge disordering, and electron
mean free path reduction. We find that the transition from metal to plasma
usually occurs via an intermediate stage of a charge-disordered solid
(solid plasma), in which ions are at their lattice sites but the
ionization stages of individual ions differ due to ionization from
localized bound states. Charge disordered state formation is very rapid
(typically, few femtoseconds or few tens of femtoseconds). Pathway to
charge-disordered state differs in simple metals and in noble metals.
Probabilities are derived for electron impact ionization and 3-body
recombination of a bound ionic state in solid-density medium, applicable
both in metal and in plasma regime. An evolution of energy coupling
between electron and ion subsystems, from metallic electron-phonon (e-ph)
to plasma electron-ion (e-i) coupling, is considered. Substantial increase
in coupling parameter is expected as a result of charge disorder.
Background and objective: We tested the feasibility of using the intubating laryngeal mask airway Fastrach™ (ILMA) as a ventilatory device and for flexible lightwand-guided tracheal intubation for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by an emergency physician. Methods: After completion of a training programme, a single experienced emergency physician used the technique for all patients requiring out-of-hospital tracheal intubation over a 10-month period. If access to the head and neck was limited, the intubating laryngeal mask airway was inserted from below and to the side, otherwise it was inserted from above the head. Data about the time for the ambulance to reach the patient, whether or not access to the head and neck was limited, whether or not circulation was successfully restored, and the insertion and intubation success rates were noted. Results: The mean (range) time for the ambulance to reach the patient was 12 (10–20) min. Access to the head and neck was limited in 8/37 (22%). Circulation was successfully restored in 10/37 (27%). The intubating laryngeal mask airway was successfully inserted at the first attempt in 35/37 (95%) and at the second attempt in 2/37 (5%). The tracheal tube was successfully inserted in 25/37 (67.5%) at the first attempt, 7/37 (19%) at the second attempt and 5/37 (13.5%) at the third attempt. There were no overall failures for intubating laryngeal mask airway insertion or tracheal intubation. There were no differences in success rate between positions. Oesophageal intubation was detected and corrected in 2/37 (5%). Conclusion: The intubating laryngeal mask airway has a high success rate as a ventilatory device and as a flexible lightwand-guided airway intubator during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation by a well-trained emergency physician. This technique may be particularly useful when there is limited access to the head and neck.
Bremsstrahlung is one of the most important energy loss mechanisms in
achieving ignition, which is only possible above a threshold in
temperature for a given fusion reaction and plasma conditions. A
detailed analysis of the bremsstrahlung process in degenerate plasma
points out that radiation energy loss is much smaller than the value
given by the classical formulation. This fact seems not useful to relax
ignition requirements in self-ignited targets, because it is only
relevant at extremely high densities. On the contrary, it can be very
positive in the fast ignition scheme, where the target is compressed to
very high densities at a minimum temperature, before the igniting
beamlet is sent in.
Sudden accidental loss of the airway during surgery is potentially hazardous especially when the patient is lying in any position which prevents easy intubation of the trachea. We describe two patients lying in the lateral position who required urgent airway management and endotracheal intubation. In both cases endotracheal intubation was achieved successfully using a light–guided technique – with a prototype illuminated flexible catheter – through an intubating laryngeal mask airway.
We evaluated the ability of inexperienced personnel in using a prototype illuminated flexible catheter to assist tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask in anaesthetised, paralysed patients. The device consists of a completely flexible thin plastic catheter, a bulb attached to its distal end and a 15-mm concentric adapter at its proximal end. The illuminated catheter is placed into a straight silicone tracheal tube in such a way that the bulb is placed at the distal end of the tracheal tube. Six nurses inexperienced in tracheal intubation followed a 2-hr training program by using the device through the intubating laryngeal mask in a mannequin and then intubated 10 patients each, with instruction from an anaesthetist. All patients (n = 60) were ASA 1–2, scheduled to undergo general anaesthesia for elective surgery. After fentanyl/propofol induction the intubating laryngeal mask was inserted. When an adequate airway was established, patients received atracurium and the endotracheal tube preloaded with the device was inserted through the intubating laryngeal mask and by observing the glow in the neck was advanced into the trachea. The final outcome and the duration of the procedure were recorded. The intubating laryngeal mask was inserted successfully in all patients. The success rate of intubation was 57/60 (95%); 38 patients at first attempt and 19 after two or three attempts. The mean (±SD) duration of the procedure in the first five patients in the series of each nurse was 74±40 s while in the last five patients it was diminished to 52±23 s (P= 0.01). We conclude that the described methodology has the potential for more widespread use of tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask even by inexperienced personnel.
Optical second and third harmonic generation measurements were carried out on GaN layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrates. The measured d33 is 33 times the d11 of quartz. The angular dependence of second-harmonic intensity as well as the measured ratios d33/d15 = −2.02 and d33/d31 =−2.03 confirm the wurzite structure of the studied GaN layers with the optical c-axis oriented perpendicular to the sample surface. Fine oscillations were observed in the measured second and third harmonic angular dependencies. A simple model based on the interference of the fundamental beam in the sample was used to explain these oscillations.