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Loss of cortical volume in frontotemporal regions occurs in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and longitudinal studies have reported progressive brain volume changes at different stages of the disease, even if cognitive deficits remain stable over time. We investigated cortical changes in patients over the 2 years following their FEP and their associations with clinical and cognitive measures.
Twenty-seven patients after their FEP (20 with schizophrenia, seven with schizo-affective disorder) and 25 healthy controls matched for age and gender participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5-T scanner both at baseline and after 2 years. Area and thickness of the cortex were measured using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Patients also underwent neuropsychological testing at these two time points.
Progressive cortical thinning in the superior and inferior frontal and, to a lesser extent, superior temporal cortex was observed in patients. Cortical area remained constant. Cortical thinning was associated with duration of treatment at a trend level and was predicted by baseline measures of IQ and working memory. Cortical thinning occurred in the absence of clinical or cognitive deterioration.
The clinical implications of these cortical changes remain uncertain, but patients with less cognitive reserve may be more vulnerable to developing cortical abnormalities when exposed to medication or other disease-related biological factors.
We introduce the concept of a rare element in a non-associative normed algebra and show that the existence of such an element is the only obstruction to continuity of a surjective homomorphism from a non-associative Banach algebra to a unital normed algebra with simple completion. Unital associative algebras do not admit any rare elements, and hence automatic continuity holds.
Outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes impaired emotion regulation. Emotion regulation has been associated with amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC). However, functional connectivity between the two structures after injury has not been reported. A preliminary examination of functional connectivity of rACC and right amygdala was conducted in adolescents 2 to 3 years after moderate to severe TBI and in typically developing (TD) control adolescents, with the hypothesis that the TBI adolescents would demonstrate altered functional connectivity in the two regions. Functional connectivity was determined by correlating fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal of the rACC and right amygdala with that of other brain regions. In the TBI adolescents, the rACC was found to be significantly less functionally connected to medial prefrontal cortices and to right temporal regions near the amygdala (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p < .05, FDR corrected), while the right amygdala showed a trend in reduced functional connectivity with the rACC (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p = .06, FDR corrected). Data suggest disrupted functional connectivity in emotion regulation regions. Limitations include small sample sizes. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to characterize the persistent neural damage resulting from moderate to severe TBI during development. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–14)
Since 2004, efforts to improve poliovirus detection have significantly increased the volume of specimen testing from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patients in India. One option to decrease collection and testing burden would be collecting only a single stool specimen instead of two. We investigated stool specimen sensitivity for poliovirus detection in India to estimate the contribution of the second specimen. We reviewed poliovirus isolation data for 303984 children aged <15 years with AFP during 2000–2010. Using maximum-likelihood estimation, we determined specimen sensitivity of each stool specimen, combined sensitivity of both specimens, and sensitivity added by the second specimen. Of 5184 AFP patients with poliovirus isolates, 382 (7·4%) were identified only by the second specimen. Sensitivity was 91·4% for the first specimen and 84·5% for the second specimen; the second specimen added 7·3% sensitivity, giving a combined sensitivity of 98·7%. Combined sensitivity declined, and added sensitivity increased, as the time from paralysis onset to stool collection increased (P = 0·032). The sensitivity added by the second specimen is important to detect the last chains of poliovirus transmission and to achieve certification of polio eradication. For sensitive surveillance, two stool specimens should continue to be collected from each AFP patient in India.
SXP 1062 is an exceptional case of a young neutron star in a wind-fed high-mass X-ray binary associated with a supernova remnant. A unique combination of measured spin period, its derivative, luminosity and young age makes this source a key probe for the physics of accretion and neutron star evolution. Theoretical models proposed to explain the properties of SXP 1062 shall be tested with new data.
Meal frequency is a key parameter in fish larviculture, especially in highly
cannibalistic species. Knowledge of the biological bases of cannibalism (growth capacity
of cannibals, morphological constraints on cannibalism, prey size preference) can help
predicting the risks of cannibalism for different feeding schedules under culture
conditions. This study relied on the day-by-day analysis of prey size preference and
bioenergetics of individual cannibals of the catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer
(8–65 mm standard length, SL, 0.5–400 mg dry mass,
DM) at 28.5 °C under 12L:12D. The results were equated with the
ontogenetic variations of morphological factors (head and mouth width) and feed efficiency
of larvae feeding on Artemia nauplii, in order to calculate the risks of
cannibalism among fish fed 2–7 daily meals. The predation capacities of P.
punctifer were highest at 8 mm SL and decreased in larger fish
(largest prey = 86% and 70% SL in fish of 8 and >30 mm
SL, respectively). Cannibals of increasing size preferred increasingly
smaller prey relative to their own size, but also to their predation capacities. These
morphological and behavioural constraints were largely compensated for by bioenergetics
performance. Cannibals consumed high daily food rations (as high as 171 and 29%
DM in fish <1 and >300 mg DM,
respectively), exhibited high gross conversion efficiencies (0.50–0.55 and about 0.70, in
fish <1 and >30 mg DM, respectively), and grew rapidly
(90 and 18% DM day-1 in fish <1 and >300 mg
DM, respectively). The growth advantage of cannibals over siblings fed
Artemia nauplii was decisive, except for high meal frequencies (6–7
daily meals). This study supports the view that the risk of cannibalism and adequate
feeding strategies can be largely predicted in a particular fish species if the
morphological, behavioural and bioenergetics bases of cannibalism are examined altogether
in an ontogenetic perspective.
Guidelines concerning early stage breast cancer do not clearly recommend tumour bed boost dose after breast conserving surgery and irradiation when the resection margins are negative. Because the number of these patients is expected to increase, we evaluated the results of our treatment scheme in which the additional tumour bed dose was omitted. One hundred consecutive individuals with ductal carcinoma in-situ or stage I or II cancer of the breast were identified for this retrospective analysis. The observed ipsilateral breast tumour recurrence and 10-year disease-free survival rates were 4% and 91% respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that triple receptor negative tumour is the most independent prognostic risk factor. In conclusion, the observed low rate of local recurrence and many long-term survivors in this study seem to legitimize the omission of the tumour bed boost dose after whole breast irradiation in women with early carcinoma of the breast and free breast conserving surgical margins.
An amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photoconductor array with two distinct integrated amorphous silicon carbon alloy (a-SiC:H) high pass filters is used to detect two of the cell intrinsic fluorophores. The cutoff wavelength of the filters is tuned by the carbon content in the film. The fluorophores of interest – reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are indicative of the redox state of the cells. Concentrations down to 1 μM for NADH and 50 μM for FAD were detected.
We are presently using the Chandra X-ray Observatory to conduct the first systematic X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) is a 570 ks Chandra Cycle 12 Large Program targeting 21 high-excitation PNe within ~1.5 kpc of Earth. When complete, this survey will provide a suite of new X-ray diagnostics that will inform the study of late stellar evolution, binary star astrophysics, and wind interactions. Among the early results of ChanPlaNS (when combined with archival Chandra data) is a surprisingly high detection rate of relatively hard X-ray emission from CSPNe. Specifically, X-ray point sources are clearly detected in roughly half of the ~30 high-excitation PNe observed thus far by Chandra, and all but one of these X-ray-emitting CSPNe display evidence for a hard (few MK) component in their Chandra spectra. Only the central star of the Dumbbell appears to display “pure” hot blackbody emission from a ~200 kK hot white dwarf photosphere in the X-ray band. Potential explanations for the“excess” hard X-ray emission detected from the other CSPNe include late-type companions (heretofore undetected, in most cases) whose coronae have been rejuvenated by recent interactions with the mass-losing WD progenitor, non-LTE effects in hot white dwarf photospheres, self-shocking variable winds from the central star, and slow (re-)accretion of previously ejected red giant envelope mass.
We studied the effect of carbon incorporation on the material and electrical properties of Ta2O5 thin film. We doped the Ta2O5 films with carbon using pulsed-dc reactive and rfmagnetron sputtering of Ta2O5 performed in an Ar/O2/CO2 plasma. In thick (70 nm) films, an optimal amount (0.8 - 1.4 at.%) of carbon doping reduced the leakage current to 10−8 A/cm2 at +3 MV/cm, a four orders of magnitude reduction compared to that in a pure Ta2O5 film grown in similar conditions without CO2 in the plasma. This finding suggests that carbon doping can significantly improve the dielectric leakage property at an optimal concentration. X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the presence of carbonate in these electrically improved carbon-doped films. Analysis by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibited no morphological or structural changes in these carbon doped films. Carbon doping showed no improvement in the leakage current in thin (10 nm) Ta2O5 films. This phenomenon is explained by a defect compensation mechanism, in which the carbon-related defects remove carriers at low concentrations but form a hopping conduction path at high concentrations.
This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of thin-film nanocrystalline silicon microresonators processed at temperatures below 110°C on glass substrates. The microelectromechanical structures consist of surface micromachined bridges of boron-doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (p+-nc-Si:H) deposited at 100°C by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The microbridges, which are suspended over an Al gate electrode, are electrostatically actuated and the mechanical resonance is detected in vacuum using an optical setup. The resonance frequency and energy dissipation in p+-nc-Si:H based resonators are studied as a function of the geometrical dimensions of the microstructures. Resonance frequencies between 700 kHz and 36 MHz and quality factors as high as 2000 are observed. A Young's modulus of 160 GPa for the structural bridge film is extracted from the experimental data using an electromechanical model and the main intrinsic energy dissipation mechanisms in nc-Si:H microresonators are discussed.
We have shown recently that the temperature dependence of the phototransport properties can yield information regarding the state distribution in the forbidden gap of semiconductors. Of these properties the light intensity exponents of both, the majority carriers, γe, and the minority carriers, γh, were found to be very sensitive to the details of this distribution. In particular, noting that sub 1/2 values of the exponents are very unusual we have studied their origin in some a-Si:H materials. Finding experimentally such sub 1/2 values of γh and running computer simulations of the recombination processes in a-Si:H led us to the conclusion that these low values are due to acceptor-like centers which have a relatively high capture coefficient for the holes. We attribute these centers to the unintentional oxygen doping in a-Si:H. We will show that the oxygen presence, usually ignored in the discussions of the phototransport properties of a-Si:H, appears to be, in many cases, the dominant factor in the properties of “intrinsic” a-Si:H.
Deposition of n and p-type amorphous (a-Si:H) and microcrystalline (µc-Si:H) silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) at substrate temperatures (Tsub) of 100°C and 25°C (RT) prepared by hot-wire (HW) chemical vapor deposition and radio-frequency (RF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is studied as a function of hydrogen dilution. Doping is achieved by addition of phosphine (ntype) and diborane (p-type) to the gas phase reactive mixture. At Tsub=100°C, n-type a-Si:H is obtained by HW with dark conductivity σd10−4 ω−1cm−1 and by RF with σd~10−3 ω−1cm−1. P-type a-Si:H is obtained by HW with σd=8×10−7 ω−1cm−1 and by RF with σd=6×10−7 ω−1cm−1. Decreasing the temperature of deposition to 25°C decreases the sd of RF n-type amorphous samples to 5×10−5 ω−1cm−1 but the σd of p-type samples remains unchanged. RT HW a-Si:H films show a decrease of sd both for ntype film (σd=4×10−6 ω−1cm−1) and p-type film (σd=1.2×10−7 ω−1cm−1). N-type µc-Si:H was obtained by HW with σd=7×10−2 ω−1cm−1 and by RF with σd>10−2 ω−1cm−1 at 100°C. Using the same Tsub, p-type µc-Si:H was deposited by HW and by RF with σd~0.5 ω−1cm−1. At RT, only p-type µc-Si:H films could be prepared using HW (σd~1 ω−1cm−1) and RF (σd=4×10−3 ω−1cm−1). The structural properties of the films were studied using Raman spectroscopy. The structural and transport properties were correlated.
Air-gap micromachined structures such as bridges and cantilevers were fabricated on 50 and 125 µm-thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic substrates. The maximum processing temperature using PET is limited to 110 °C. Two surface micromachining processes on PET which used two different sacrificial layers - photoresist and Al - were developed. Several materials were used as structural layers in the microstructures including Al, TiW, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and a bilayer of a-Si:H and Al. The maximum length of free-standing bridges and cantilevers is discussed as a function of the fabrication process. The bridge structures were actuated electrostatically, in a DC switch setup configuration, and the critical voltage as a function of the length was measured. Mechanical actuation and optical detection were used, in an AC mode, for the measurement of the resonance frequency of bridge structures.
Amorphous and micro-crystalline Si films have been deposited by the hot-wire technique on deeply structured columnar ZnO films. It is found that nearly perfect conformal deposition occurs for amorphous films, similar to what was previously found for rf-plasma deposited films. Micro-crystalline films deposited by the hot wire technique are less conformal since deposition occurs preferentially on protruding features of the substrate, while films deposited by rf-plasma CVD exhibit high conformality.
The piezoresistive behavior of optimized n-type and p-type microcrystalline silicon films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate plastic substrate by hot-wire and radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, at a substrate temperature of 100 °C, is studied. A 4-point bending jig allowed the application of positive and negative strains in the films. Repeated measurements of the relative changes in the resistance of the samples during the strained condition showed reversible behavior, with p-type microcrystalline films having positive gauge factor in the range from 25 to 30 and n-type [.proportional]c-Si:H films having negative values of gauge factor from -40 to -10. The induced strain in the films was in the range between 0 and ±0.3%. A sensor utilizing the piezoresistive property of doped [.proportional]c-Si:H was used to map a contour with the shape of an Archimedes' spiral.
Electrostatic actuation of bridge and cantilever structures is studied. The structures are composed of bilayers of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon and aluminum fabricated using surface micromachining on glass substrates. The structures are actuated by applying the sum of a DC and a low-frequencyAC voltage. The resulting AC deflection is detected optically. The dependence of this deflection upon theapplied voltages and the bridge length is studied and compared with the predictions of an electromechanical model. The deflection amplitude can be electrostatically controlled and detected with a precision estimated to be better than a nanometer.
This work demonstrates the use of an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) photodetector to measure the density of covalently-bound DNA molecules tagged with a fluorescent molecule. This device is based on the photoconductivity of a-Si:H in a coplanar electrode configuration. Excitation of a fluorescently-tagged biomolecule with near UV/blue light results in the emission of visible light. The emitted light is then converted into an electrical signal in the photodetector, thus allowing the detection of the presence of the tagged DNA molecules. The design, fabrication and characterization of this integrated a-Si:H-based bio-detector is described. The detection limit of the present device is of the order of 20 pmol/cm2. A surface density of ≤ 30 pmol/cm2 for DNA covalently-bound to an active silica layer was measured with the a-Si:H-based bio-detector.