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Phase equilibria in the system Pd–Ag–S were studied using the silica-glass tube method at 400°C and 550°C. In the system we synthesised three ternary phases: coldwellite (Pd3Ag2S), kravtsovite (PdAg2S) and a new phase Pd13Ag3S4. At 400°С, coldwellite forms a stable association with vysotskite (PdS) and vasilite (Pd16S7); vysotskite and kravtsovite; phase Pd4S and a Ag–Pd alloy; it also coexists with a new phase Pd13Ag3S4. Kravtsovite is stable up to 507°C; the presence of kravtsovite in the mineral assemblage reflects its formation below this temperature. The occurrence of coldwellite, vysotskite and Ag2S together in equilibrium reflects the formation of this mineral assemblage above this temperature (507°C). Coldwellite is stable up at 940°С. Mineral assemblages defined in this study can be expected in Cu–Ni–PGE mineral deposits, associated with mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, in particular in mineralisations with known silver–palladium sulfides.
In this study, we examine how the Guri catfish Genidens genidens uses estuarine and freshwater habitats along the largest South American coastal lagoon, through the chemical analysis of otoliths and microscopic analysis of gonads. Chemical composition (Sr:Ca) of otolith edges allowed distinguishing between individuals who used the estuarine or freshwater compartments of the lagoon. The analysis of core-to-edge chemical profiles of each individual otolith revealed that the population may present two different patterns of habitat use along the lagoon. The ‘type 1’ pattern (89.5%) includes fish who appear to have been born in estuarine waters, whereas ‘type 2’ (9.5%) includes those fish born in fresh water. Nevertheless, juveniles from both patterns appear to migrate to estuarine waters. The gonad analysis shows G. genidens may reproduce in fresh water, as nearly 57% of all sampled fish were found to spawn in the freshwater portion of the lagoon. Also, the otolith core of many adult fish presented freshwater signatures, thus suggesting consistent fresh water use during early life. Our findings based on otolith and gonadal analyses challenge the previous classification of G. genidens as an estuarine resident. Rather, our results allow the suggestion that this species should be placed in the ‘estuarine and fresh water’ guild, which includes both fish completing their life cycles within the estuary and fish who consistently use freshwater habitats.
Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) have been widely studied over the past 20 years for various applications, including biological sensing. While the WGM-based sensing approaches reported in the literature have shown tremendous performance down to single molecule detection, at present such sensing technologies are not yet mature and still have significant practical constraints that limit their use in real-world applications. Our work has focused on developing a practical, yet effective, WGM-based sensing platform capable of being used as a dip sensor for in-vivo biosensing by combining WGM fluorescent microresonators with silica Microstructured Optical Fibers (MOFs).
We recently demonstrated that a suspended core MOF with a dye-doped polymer microresonator supporting WGMs positioned onto the tip of the fiber, can be used as a dip sensor. In this architecture the resonator is anchored to one of the MOF air holes, in contact with the fiber core, enabling a significant portion of the evanescent field from the fiber to overlap with the sphere and hence excite the fluorescent WGMs. This architecture allows for remote excitation and collection of the WGMs. The fiber also permits easy manipulation of the microresonator for dip sensing applications, and hence alleviates the need for a complex microfluidic interface. More importantly, it allows for an increase in both the excitation and collection efficiency compared to free space coupling, and also improves the Q factor.
In this paper we present our recent results on microstructured fiber tip WGM-based sensors and show that this sensing platform can be used in clinical diagnostics, for detecting various clinically relevant biomarkers in complex clinical samples.
The phase equilibria in the system Ag–Pd–Te were studied by the technique of using an evacuated silica glass tube at 350° and 450°C. Five ternary phases were synthesized: sopcheite (Pd3Ag4Te4), lukkulaisvaaraite (Pd14Ag2Te9),telargpalite (Pd2–xAg1+xTe) and the previously unknown phases Pd7.5–xAg0.5+ xTe3 and Pd2+xAg2–xTe.The synthetic telargpalite has a compositional range from 26 to 29 wt.% Ag, with the formula Pd2–xAg1+xTe, where x varies from 0.09 to 0.22. The phase Pd2+xAg2–xTe has a compositional range from 34 to 35 wt.% Ag, where x varies from 0.18 to 0.24. The phase Pd7.5–xAg0.5+xTe3 forms a solid solution from 4 to 11 wt.% Ag, where x varies from 0.02 to 0.83. Phases Pd20Te7and Pd13Te3 dissolve up to 3.5 and 2 wt.% Ag, respectively. Other binary palladium tellurides do not dissolve Ag. The phase Pd3Ag4Te4, an analogue of the mineral sopcheite, forms a stable association with hessite and kotulskite it also coexists with lukkulaisvaaraite. Sopcheite is stable up to 383°C. Natural occurrences of hessite, kotulskite and lukkulaisvaaraite together in equilibrium indicate formation above this temperature. Phase relations defined the mineral assemblages that can be expected to occur in nature.The phase Pd7.5–xAg0.5+xTe3 potentially represents a new mineral; it will probably be found in association with lukkulaisvaaraite and telargpalite or telluropalladinite, among other platinum-group minerals. The phasePd2+xAg2–x Te can be found in association with telargpalite. Mineral assemblages defined in this study can be expected in Cu-Ni-PGE mineral deposits, associated with mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, particularly in mineralized zones with known silver-palladium tellurides.
The types and undescribed material of the hymenopteran fossils of the Insect Bed of the Bembridge Marls from the Isle of Wight (UK) are critically revised and studied. A total of 1460 fossils are recorded and attributed to 20 families: Gasteruptiidae s.l. (1); Proctotrupidae (3); Diapriidae (24); Cynipidae (7); Figitidae (6); Pteromalidae (1); Agaonidae (3); Scelionidae (12); Platygastridae (2); Ichneumonidae (32); Braconidae (75); Bethylidae (3); Crabronidae (2); Sphecidae (1); Apidae (2); Scoliidae (1); Tiphiidae (2); Vespidae (4); and Formicidae (1220). Described as new are 51 species, 13 genera, two tribes and two subfamilies. Minimum number of species recorded (either as described species or representing higher taxa with no described species in the assemblage) is 118. The composition of the hymenopteran assemblage is most similar to that of Baltic amber and indicative of a well forested territory, as well as of a humid, equable (aseasonal but not very hot) climate, more typically equable than in the Baltic amber source area, judging from the absence of Aphidiinae and scarcity of aphids.
We hypothesised that the inclusion of glycerol in the forage diets of ruminants would increase the proportion of propionate produced and thereby decrease in vitro CH4 production. This hypothesis was examined in the present study using a semi-continuous fermentation system (rumen simulation technique) fed a brome hay (8·5 g) and maize silage (1·5 g) diet with increasing concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg DM) of glycerol substituted for maize silage. Glycerol linearly increased total volatile fatty acids production (P< 0·001). Acetate production was quadratically affected (P= 0·023) and propionate and butyrate production was linearly increased (P< 0·001). Glycerol linearly increased (P= 0·011) DM disappearance from hay and silage. Crude protein disappearance from hay was not affected (P= 0·789), but that from silage was linearly increased (P< 0·001) with increasing glycerol concentrations. Neutral-detergent fibre (P= 0·040) and acid-detergent fibre (P= 0·031) disappearance from hay and silage was linearly increased by glycerol. Total gas production tended to increase linearly (P= 0·061) and CH4 concentration in gas was linearly increased (P< 0·001) by glycerol, resulting in a linear increase (P< 0·001) in mg CH4/g DM digested. Our hypothesis was rejected as increasing concentrations of glycerol in a forage diet linearly increased CH4 production in semi-continuous fermenters, despite the increases in the concentrations of propionate. In conclusion, this apparent discrepancy is due to the more reduced state of glycerol when compared with carbohydrates, which implies that there is no net incorporation of electrons when glycerol is metabolised to propionate.
In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus.
The serotoninergic system as a target for add-on treatment seems to be a promising approach in patients with schizophrenia.
To clarify if selective 5HT-6 antagonist AVN-211 (CD-008-0173) adds clinical and cognitive effects to stable antipsychotic treatment.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on, 4r-week trial in 47 schizophrenia patients (21 patients receiving study drug and 26 receiving placebo) who were stabilized on antipsychotic medication was performed. Seventeen patients from the study drug group and 25 patients from the placebo group completed the trial. Treatment effects were measured using clinical rating scales and attention tests.
With no differences at baseline, there was a significant difference between the groups in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive subscale score (p = 0.058) in favor of patients in the treatment group at the endpoint. The PANSS positive subscore (p = 0.0068) and Clinical Global Impression–Severity (CGI-S) (p = 0.048) score significantly changed only in the treatment group. Only in the placebo group were significant changes in Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDRS) total score registered. The indices of attention tests at endpoint did not show differences between the groups, with the exception of the scope of change in the results of the subtest VIII of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), which showed difference between the groups (p = 0.02) and was significantly larger in the treatment group. Only inside the study drug group, significant changes in selectivity and continuous attention were observed regarding total correct responses (p = 0.0038) and reaction time (p = 0.058) in the Continuous Attention Task (CAT) test.
Selective 5HT6 antagonist AVN-211 (CD-008-0173) added antipsychotic and some procognitive (attention) effects to antipsychotic medication.
In this work, we report on local ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of nanostructured polymer composites P(VDF-TrFE)+x(Ba,Pb)(Zr,Ti)O3 (x = 0 - 50 %). High-resolution imaging of ferroelectric domains, local polarization switching, and polarization relaxation dynamics were studied by piezoresponse force microscopy. In particular, we found that (Ba,Pb)(Zr,Ti)O3 inclusions usually show a strong unipolar piezoresponse signal, as compared to the polymer matrix. By scanning under high dc voltage the films can be polarized uniformly under both positive and negative electric fields. Stability of the polarized state is discussed.
Results of finite element analysis of linked two and three scale levels tasks are presented. Fields of components of stress concentration tensor function for several models of unit cells of textile composite materials are presented too. Comparison of experimental and computational results of obtained effective properties was carried out and results of this research are introduced. The basis of this phenomenological approaches was made by Prof. N.S. Bahvalov and Prof. B.E. Pobedriya in 80's and finally this method was renovated by Prof. Yu.I. Dimitrienko at Bauman Moscow State Technical University at «Computational mathematics and mathematical physics» department. Computational procedures and program implementation was made using object-oriented design and C/C++ language by A.P. Sokolov. All computational results have been performed using new-developed distributed high-perfomance software system GCD. Multiscale homogenization method was applied for single macroscopic level of composite construction and several connected microscopic levels. The task of stress-strain determination of composite construction was stated automatically by means of automatically defined plan based on certain computational problems. Architecture of software system and finite-element subsystem were developed too. Several practically important tasks were solved and some of its results are attached.
A specific breeding goal definition was developed for Creole goats in Guadeloupe. This local breed is used for meat production. To ensure a balanced selection outcome, the breeding objective included two production traits, live weight (BW11) and dressing percentage (DP) at 11 months (the mating or selling age), one reproduction trait, fertility (FER), and two traits to assess animal response to parasite infection: packed cell volume (PCV), a resilience trait, and faecal worm eggs count (FEC), a resistance trait. A deterministic bio-economic model was developed to calculate the economic values based on the description of the profit of a Guadeloupean goat farm. The farm income came from the sale of animals for meat or as reproducers. The main costs were feeding and treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites. The economic values were 7.69€ per kg for BW11, 1.38€ per % for FER, 3.53€ per % for DP and 3 × 10−4€ per % for PCV. The economic value for FEC was derived by comparing the expected profit and average FEC in a normal situation and in an extreme situation where parasites had developed resistance to anthelmintics. This method yielded a maximum weighting for FEC, which was −18.85€ per log(eggs per gram). Alternative scenarios were tested to assess the robustness of the economic values to variations in the economic and environmental context. The economic values of PCV and DP were the most stable. Issues involved in paving the way for selective breeding on resistance or resilience to parasites are discussed.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene are promising components for the next generation high performance structural and multi-functional composite materials. One of the largest obstacles to create strong, electrically or thermally conductive CNT/CNF composites is the difficulty of getting a good dispersion of the carbon nanomaterials in a matrix. Typically, time-consuming steps of the carbon nanomaterial purification, ultrasound sonication and functionalization are required. We utilized a new approach to grow CNTs/CNFs directly on the surface of matrix, matrix precursor or filler particles. As the precursor matrix and fillers we utilized cement (clinker), copper powder, fly ash particles, soil and sand. Carbon nanomaterials were successfully grown on these materials without additional catalyst. Investigations of the physical properties of the composite materials based on these carbon modified particles revealed enhancement in the mechanical and electrical properties.
Double mode pulsations of the B4 component in the system of CI Cam were detected. The photometric 19.4 day orbital period of CI Cam was confirmed with the plates of the Sonneberg collection for a long period of time before the unique 1998 outburst. The amplitude of the periodic component of 0.08 mag before the outburst was larger than that of 0.03 mag after the outburst.
We introduce high staircase infinite measure preserving transformations and prove that they are mixing under a restricted growth condition. This is used to (i) realize each subset as the set of essential values of the multiplicity function for the Koopman operator of a mixing ergodic infinite measure preserving transformation, (ii) construct mixing power weakly mixing infinite measure preserving transformations, and (iii) construct mixing Poissonian automorphisms with a simple spectrum, etc.
In this work, we present an analysis of a data cube obtained with the instrument IFU/GMOS Gemini North telescope centered on the nuclear region of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579. This galaxy is known to have a type 1 AGN (see Eracleous et al. 2002 for a review). The methodology used for the analysis of the data cube was PCA tomography (Steiner et al. 2009), which consists of applying the statistical tool known as principal component analysis (PCA) to extract information from data cubes. The analysis was performed in the following way: first, the data cube for this object was transformed into a data matrix, where each row corresponded to a spatial pixel and each column corresponded to a spectral pixel. We then applied the PCA to this matrix, obtaining eigenvectors as a function of spectral pixels (which correspond to the original coordinates). These eigenvectors, which have the appearance of spectra, are called eigenspectra. We also calculated the projection of the data corresponding to the spatial pixels on each one of the eigenvectors. These images were called tomograms. Figure 1 shows Eigenspectrum E2 and tomogram T2 superposed on T1.
Analysis of CCD observations of Phoebe, the 9th satellite of Saturn (visual magnitude of about 16.5), with a mirror astrograph ZA-320M at Pulkovo Observatory in Saint-Petersburg are presented. Photometric observations are performed both in the integral band of the telescope and in bands BVR of the Johnson system. Reference catalogues USNO-A2.0 (for R - filter and integral observations) and Ticho-2 (for V and B - filters) were used. Rotational light-curve data for Phoebe taken over a short time span (2 - 8 hours) for several nights are presented. Numerical investigation of the evolution of Phoebe's rotational dynamics is carried out. The probability of Phoebe's capture in resonant states that are distinct from 1:1 is estimated.
NGC 404, at a distance of 3.4 Mpc, is the nearest S0 galaxy. This galaxy harbors a LINER; however, since the spectrum does not show a broad Hα emission, it is not certain that this LINER is a low luminosity AGN and its nature is still an open question. HST observations show the existence of stellar populations with an age of 3 × 108 years in the galactic bulge and with an age of 6–15 × 109 years in the galactic disk. In this work, we present an analysis of the data cube of NGC 404 obtained with the IFU (Integral Field Unity) of the GMOS (Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph) on the Gemini North telescope.