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Iran has remained one of the most effective tools in Russia's foreign policy towards the West for more than two hundred years. Drawing on previously unpublished and recently declassified sources which change the established wisdom on many aspects of the history of Russia and Iran, Denis V. Volkov examines this relationship, and situates it within the broader context of Oriental studies. With a particular focus on the activities of scholars-diplomats, as well as scholars involved in academia, missionary activities and the military within their own professional domains, Volkov analyses the interaction of intellectuals with state structures and their participation in the process of shaping and conducting foreign policy towards Iran. This work explores the specific institutional practices of Russia's Oriental studies, including organisation of scholarly intelligence networks, taking advantage of state power for the promotion of institutional and individual interests, and profound engagement with Russia's domestic and foreign policy discourses of its time.
. We analyzed a 40-year set of multicolor photometry and a 15-year set of synoptic monitoring of SS 433 along with fragmentary spectral and radio data. This system contains a neutron star and an A3–A7 I giant. The system is found to be either close, in contact, or it has a common envelope from time to time. The A-type giant is now in transition to the dynamical mass transfer.
This study examines how to stop the pyrolysis of fir needles, birch leaves, aspen twigs and their mixture using the minimum volumes of water. The combustion of forest fuels is suppressed by spraying water on their surface. The temperature of thermal decomposition is monitored throughout the layer of forest fuel by thermocouples. A high-speed camera and optical techniques allow us to study water spraying and its interaction with forest fuels. Finally, the study specifies the ranges of the minimum water volumes and the times of ending of the thermal decomposition of forest fuels. When analyzing the energy balance in the thermally decomposing forest fuel, a mathematical expression is formulated to predict the water volume sufficient to suppress thermal decomposition of forest fuel. This expression takes into account the ratio between the heat energy spent on water evaporation in pores of forest fuel and the heat energy of the reacting layer of forest fuel. The obtained dimensionless factor considers the main parameters of water spraying and the properties of forest fuel. This factor enables us to apply the research findings to forest fuel in various regions of the world.