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To systematically search for studies reporting outcomes for adenoidectomy alone as a treatment for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea and use the data to perform a meta-analysis.
Nine databases, including PubMed and Medline, were systematically searched through to 1 April 2016. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed.
A total of 1032 articles were screened and 126 full texts were reviewed. Three paediatric studies (47 patients) reported outcomes. Overall, apnoea–hypopnoea index values decreased from 18.1 ± 16.8 to 3.1 ± 5.5 events per hour (28 patients). Random-effects modelling demonstrated a mean difference of −14.43 events per hour (I2 = 23 per cent (low inconsistency)). The apnoea–hypopnoea index standardised mean difference was −1.14 (large magnitude of effect). The largest reduction in apnoea–hypopnoea index was observed in children aged less than 12 months (reduction of 56.6−94.9 per cent). Lowest oxygen saturation values improved from 80.0 ± 9.5 to 85.5 ± 6.0 per cent (13 children).
Adenoidectomy alone has improved obstructive sleep apnoea in children, especially in those aged less than 12 months; however, given the low number of studies, isolated adenoidectomy remains an area for additional research.
To evaluate the clinical and histopathological factors affecting the prognosis of patients with squamous cell locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of 121 patients with locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer, primarily treated with surgery from 2007 to 2011. Disease-free survival and overall survival rates were analysed as oncological outcomes. Prognostic variables, namely gender, pharyngeal invasion, pathological assessment of tumour and nodal stage, adjuvant therapy, margin status, nodal extracapsular extension, tumour differentiation, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, and predominant growth pattern, were also analysed.
One-year and three-year disease-free survival rates were 81.3 per cent and 63.5 per cent, respectively. One-year and three-year overall survival rates were 88.3 per cent and 61.4 per cent, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that nodal extracapsular extension (p < 0.05) and an infiltrative growth pattern (p < 0.05) were associated with disease progression. Nodal extracapsular extension (p < 0.05) was associated with higher mortality.
Nodal extracapsular extension and an infiltrative growth pattern were the main prognostic factors in locoregional advanced laryngeal cancer. The presence of pharyngeal invasion, pathologically confirmed node-positive stage 2–3 disease, close or microscopic positive margins, and lymphovascular and perineural invasion have a negative impact on prognosis.
To identify and systematically evaluate user-friendly smartphone snoring apps.
The Apple iTunes app store was searched for snoring apps that allow recording and playback. Snoring apps were downloaded, evaluated and rated independently by four authors. Two patients underwent polysomnography, and the data were compared with simultaneous snoring app recordings, and one patient used the snoring app at home.
Of 126 snoring apps, 13 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The most critical app feature was the ability to graphically display the snoring events. The Quit Snoring app received the highest overall rating. When this app's recordings were compared with in-laboratory polysomnography data, app snoring sensitivities ranged from 64 to 96 per cent, and snoring positive predictive values ranged from 93 to 96 per cent. A chronic snorer used the app nightly for one month and tracked medical interventions. Snoring decreased from 200 to 10 snores per hour, and bed partner snoring complaint scores decreased from 9 to 2 (on a 0–10 scale).
Select smartphone apps are user-friendly for recording and playing back snoring sounds. Preliminary comparison of more than 1500 individual snores demonstrates the potential clinical utility of such apps; however, further validation testing is recommended.
To systematically review outcomes of adults with obstructive sleep apnoea treated with nasopharyngeal airway stenting devices.
Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases were searched, and data on device use and tolerability, sleepiness, oxygen saturation, apnoea index, apnoea–hypopnoea index, and sleep quality were collected.
Of 573 potential studies, 29 were retrieved for detailed evaluation and 16 met the study criteria. Polysomnography data for patients treated with nasal trumpets as an isolated therapy were pooled for meta-analysis. The mean apnoea index ± standard deviation, for 53 patients, decreased from 32.4 ± 15.9 to 9.0 ± 7.2 episodes per hour (p < 0.00001). The mean apnoea–hypopnoea index, for 193 patients, decreased from 44.1 ± 18.9 to 22.7 ± 19.3 episodes per hour (p < 0.00001). The mean lowest oxygen saturation, for 193 patients, increased from 66.5 ± 14.2 to 75.5 ± 13.9 per cent (p < 0.00001).
Some studies have demonstrated limited effectiveness and low tolerability of nasopharyngeal airway stenting devices, while other studies have shown a significant benefit in treating obstructive sleep apnoea, with a high level of patient acceptance. Nasal trumpets have been successful in decreasing airway obstruction in the short term.
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