The contribution of dietary Ca and P in renal stone formation is debated. Thus, the main objective was to investigate if there were any differences in the dietary, serum and urine values of Ca and P in stone formers (SF) compared with healthy controls (HC). The secondary aim was to analyse if dietary, serum and urine Ca and P correlated. The study enrolled ten patients with renal stones admitted for stone removal and ten healthy controls. Their dietary macronutrients, Ca and P intakes were calculated from 2-d dietary records. On the second day of dietary record 24-h urine was collected and on the third day morning a 5 ml blood sample was collected. Biochemical analyses were conducted for serum and urine Ca, P and uric acid with qualitative renal stone analysis. All the dietary intakes and urine P were significantly higher (P < 0·05) in SF than in HC. Correlation results showed that in SF dietary Ca correlated to serum and urine Ca. No such correlations were seen for P. Additionally, in SF urine Ca correlated to dietary proteins and fats but not to carbohydrates. None of the biochemical values lay outside the normal range of values. The study suggests urine P rather than urine Ca to be probably at work in the formation of renal stones. Limitation of protein intake with normal Ca intakes could provide a suitable measure to avoid renal stone formation.