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It was to be Max Reinhardt's last theatre production in Europe: his production of Faust I at the Salzburg Festival was staged in 1937 for the fifth and last time, and its director found himself forced by the annexation of Austria to turn his back on Europe. Up to the present day this production is one of the milestones in the history of the Salzburg Festival. At its premiere in 1933 the accompanying music was given its own separate appraisal – something very unusual in the history of incidental music. The reviewer spoke of music ‘that came into the world in shackles’, by which he meant the tight and direct amalgamation of the acoustic dimension with the special Salzburg situation. What was seen and evaluated here first and foremost from marketing strategy angles (the impossibility of using the music again for productions elsewhere) can be applied also to the level of aesthetics concerning the work and its production: the linking of specially composed music to a specific performance context is indeed probably the most important characteristic of incidental music which distinguishes it fundamentally from opera.
Reinhardt's Salzburg Faust production with music by Bernhard Paumgartner is a significant example of a type of productive musical engagement with Faust which, until a few years ago, was completely ignored by both musicologists and Germanists and only recently emerged in the consciousness of at least those scholars who focus on theatre music: they see the history of Faust as a play for the stage, including the music for each production – and often exclusively for that production – as a primary and original strand of reception, which began in Goethe's lifetime, continued after his death and still has currency in the modern period and in the current theatre landscape. Early in the history of theatrical practice this kind of productive updating of the work by way of a new musical interpretation of Faust was often overlooked. On the one hand, in Goethe's lifetime there were no – or hardly any – performances of the work, so that it was received first of all as a reading drama.
THE PERIOD BETWEEN 1715 and 1760 – the focus of the present volume – virtually coincides with that of the employment of Christoph Graupner (1683–1760) at the court of Hesse, from his initial engagement as a musician in Darmstadt in 1709, followed by his promotion to first Hofkapellmeister just two years later. His fifty-one years of service covered the reigns of two landgraves: Ernst Ludwig (1667–1739) for the first thirty years, and his son Ludwig VIII (1691–1768) for the remaining twenty-one until Graupner's death. Considering its size and compared to other Hofkapellen, in the period immediately following Graupner's arrival in particular, the Darmstadt court had at its disposal an extraordinarily high number of vocalists and instrumentalists. However, the spirit of optimism which had initially accompanied Graupner's appointment began to disappear by the end of the second decade of the eighteenth century: opera performances came to a halt and from this time on opportunities for composition at the court were restricted to chamber music as well as to cantatas for the Sunday church service. Financial difficulties at the court became a long-term issue for the musicians who repeatedly called for their unpaid wages.
Over the course of the more than fifty years during which Graupner was active as a composer in the same location, he produced a total oeuvre of over 1,400 vocal works (including 10 operas) and 300 verified instrumental works (plus a further 90 anonymous and uncertain instrumental compositions).
To describe regional differences between eastern and western Germany with regard to food, nutrient and supplement intake in 9–12-year-old children, and analyse its association with parental education and equivalent income.
Data were obtained from the 10-year follow-up of the two prospective birth cohort studies – GINIplus and LISAplus. Data on food consumption and supplement intake were collected using an FFQ, which had been designed for the specific study population. Information on parental educational level and equivalent income was derived from questionnaires. Logistic regression modelling was used to analyse the effect of parental education, equivalent income and region on food intake, after adjusting for potential confounders.
A total of 3435 children aged 9–12 years.
Substantial regional differences in food intake were observed between eastern and western Germany. Intakes of bread, butter, eggs, pasta, vegetables/salad and fruit showed a significant direct relationship with the level of parental education after adjusting for potential confounders, whereas intakes of margarine, meat products, pizza, desserts and soft drinks were inversely associated with parental education. Equivalent income had a weaker influence on the child's food intake.
Nutritional education programmes for school-age children should therefore account for regional differences and parental education.
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