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The field of short- and mid-range radar sensors for automotive comfort and safety systems is a fast-growing market. The frequency regulation provides a new 76–81 GHz frequency band, which will be mandatory in the EU for ultra-wideband sensors from 2018. In the “radar-on-chip for cars” (RoCC) project funded by the German Ministry of Research (BMBF), a new technology was developed based on SiGe components with the objective to make the sensors affordable for all car platforms. This paper reports on the contribution of Continental A.D.C. GmbH to the joint “RoCC” project. The aim of the project was to exploit the cost-reduction potential of the SiGe technology by a further integration of the individual components and to show that the reliability and the functionality of the new sensors can meet the current requirements of the market. For this purpose, we evaluated the new eWLB package technology of Infineon. The Institute of Microwave Techniques of the University of Ulm supported us in designing a substrate integrated slotted waveguide antenna array. Demonstration sensors for short- and mid-range applications were built up and tested in the laboratory. To show the ability of the sensors to deal with real scenarios on the road, they were integrated into an experimental vehicle.
Nanometer sized gold patterns were produced with controlled spacings using the combination of a top-down (e-beam lithography) and a bottom-up (macromolecular chemistry) technique. Sub-10 nm nanoparticle arrays on silicon consisting of gold nano particles separated by micro meter spacings were fabricated with this approach. Using electron beam lithography, templates comprising of 150 nm to 1 μm sized trenches, holes and aperiodic patterns were made in an electron-beam resist. Block copolymer micelles were then patterned into this template by spincoating. The micelles acted as positioners for a nanometer sized gold precursor that is sequestered within its core. Subsequent removal of the resist layer left an array of Au loaded organic micelles ordered according to the pattern of the template. Exposure of this substrate to a hydrogen plasma removed the organic block copolymer and resulted in an array of sub-10 nm gold nanoparticles/nanoclusters with micron separations. The gold was then used as an anchor point for the tethering of functional molecules in order to localize fluorescent molecules.
New glass-composites with ion exchange properties have been developed. Ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP) (NH4)3PMo12O40, and ammonium 12-tungstophosphate (AWP) (NH4)3PW12O40, known for their ion exchange capabilities, are included either in preformed aerogels with defined pore size, or are added to sol-gel mixtures during the process of gel formation. Characterization is carried out by FTIR, Raman and EXAFS spectroscopy. Ion exchange capacities for the oxometalate precursors are determined for silver and rubidium and are compared to those of the glass composites. Glass composites show high ion exchange capacity, but some portion of the metalate complexes leaches from the glass during the procedure. This is in contrast to thin composite films, which have almost no porosity and do not show loss of metalate. EXAFS spectroscopy demostrates that the oxometalate microstructure is maintained in glass composites and that rubidium ions after ion exchange in glasses occupy similar cation positions as in the precursor compounds.
Accurate and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD)
with reliable and noninvasive methods is of great importance
for clinical practice as effective and specific antidementive
therapies become available. The aim of the study was to evaluate
the clinical relevance of event-related P300 in the early diagnosis
of AD. Thirty patients with AD, 26 patients with mild cognitive
impairment (MCI) from our Memory Clinic and 26 age-matched healthy
controls (HC) were studied with event-related P300 potentials.
Amplitudes of temporo-basal dipoles (TB-P300) were significantly
diminished in AD compared to HC and MCI. Furthermore, latencies
of temporo-superior dipoles (TS-P300) were significantly prolonged
in AD compared with HC. Sensitivity was 90.0% for the
differentiation of patients with AD from HC (specificity 79.1%)
using reduced TB-P300 amplitudes and prolonged TS-P300 latencies.
Similar results were found using Pz amplitudes as well as Fz
latencies. Our data suggest that TB-P300 amplitudes and TS-P300
latencies may be an accurate clinically available, nonexpensive,
noninvasive, and reliable marker for AD.
Electroencephalography is the only diagnostic instrument directly reflecting cortical neuronal functioning, and it remains an important clinical tool in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a normal EEG is found in many patients with mild AD, a pathological EEG is an important finding, because such a result is not in line with differential diagnoses such as depression or pseudodementia within a dissociative disorder. The vast majority of patients with moderate to servere AD have a pathological EEG. A normal EEG in this patient group is more in line with subcortical dementia or frontal lobe degeneration than with AD. Compared to SPECT or routine structural brain imaging (cCT, MRT), EEG has a comparable diagnosis sensitivity and a higher specificity. For monitoring changes of brain function by serial recordings (e.g., during therapy with antidementia drugs), EEG is the best available method.
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