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Food losses caused by insects during postharvest storage are of paramount economic importance worldwide, especially in Africa. Laboratory bioassays were conducted in stored grains to determine the toxicity of powders of Eugenia aromatica and Moringa oleifera alone or combined with enhanced diatomaceous earth (Probe-A® DE, 89.0% SiO2 and 5% silica aerogel) to adult Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium castaneum and Acanthoscelides obtectus. Adult mortality was observed up to 7 days, while progeny production was recorded at 6–10 weeks. LD50 and LT50 values for adult test insects exposed to plant powders and DE, showed that A. obtectus was the most susceptible towards the botanicals (LD50 0.179% and 0.088% wt/wt for E. aromatica and M. oleifera, respectively), followed by S. granarius. Tribolium castaneum was most tolerant (LD50 1.42% wt/wt and 1.40% wt/wt for E. aromatica and M. oleifera, respectively). The combined mixture of plant powders and DE controlled the beetles faster compared to the plant powders alone. LT50 ranged from 55.7 h to 62.5 h for T. castaneum exposed to 1.0% M. oleifera and 1.0% DE, and 0.5% E. aromatica and 1.0% DE, respectively. Botanicals caused significant reduction of F1 adults compared to the control. Combined action of botanical insecticides with DE as a grain protectant in an integrated pest management approach is discussed.
The continuously growing and wide-spread utilization of blends of organic electron and hole conducting materials comprises ambipolar field-effect transistors as well as organic photovoltaic cells. Structural, optical and electrical properties are investigated in blends and neat films of the electron donor material Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) together with fullerene C60 and Cu-hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) as electron acceptor materials, respectively. The difference in molecular structure of the spherical C60 and the planar molecule CuPc leads to nanophase separation in the blend, causing charge carrier transport which is limited by the successful formation of percolation paths. In contrast, blends of the similar shaped CuPc and F16CuPc molecules entail mixed crystals, as can be clearly seen by X-ray diffraction measurements. We discuss differences of both systems with respect to their microstructure as well as their electrical transport properties.
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