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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
There is a positive correlation between level of education and working function in the general population. Bipolar disorder (BD) is often associated with disability in social and working function. There is conflicting evidence considering educational achievements in BD patients.
Our aim was to investigate how education was related to social and occupational function in BD.
Patients with DSM-IV BD (N=257; 69.3% BD I, 25.7% BD II, 5.1% BD NOS, 51.4% females) were consecutively recruited from mental health clinics throughout Norway. The majority of patients were recruited when in-patients. About 1/2 had at least once experienced a psychotic episode. The BD sample was compared with a geographically matched reference sample from the general population (N=56.540) on levels of education, marital status, income, and disability benefits. Further analyses of association were carried out using logistic regression analyses.
A significantly higher proportion of subjects in the BD group than in the reference group was single, had low income, or was disabled. No between-group difference was found in educational level. In the reference group education was inversely correlated with the risk of being disabled, but no such relationship was found in the BD group. In BD patients rapid cycling and recurring depressive episodes were the only clinical characteristics associated with low educational level.
Despite similar levels of education, BD patients had lower socio-economic status than the general population, and no association was found between education and disability for BD patients.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment alternative in bipolar disorder (BD) depression. Cognitive side effects are the major concern limiting its use.
We present data from the Norwegian randomized controlled trial of ECT in treatment resistant depression in bipolar disorder.
To compare effects on cognitive function of ECT or algorithm based pharmacological treatment at the end of a six-week acute, BD depression treatment trial.
Prospective, randomised controlled multi-centre, six-week acute treatment trial. Pre- and post-treatment assessments with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB); a neuropsychological test battery designed to be sensitive to changes in cognitive function.
N = 51 patients ≥ 18 years fulfilling criteria for treatment resistant BD depression (MADRS score ≥ 25).
ECT group: Three sessions per week for up to six weeks, total up to 18 sessions, and right unilateral electrode placement. Algorithm-based pharmacological treatment group: Based on Goodwin & Jamison, 2007.
Both groups showed a net gain on MCCB scores without significant differences between the study groups. Mean change in MCCB composite T-score was 4.0 (5.7) in the ECT group and 2.7 (3.6) in the pharmacological group (F = 0.78, eta2 = 0.021, p = 0.383).
In treatment resistant BD depression ECT and algorithm-based pharmacological treatment have comparable effects on cognitive function assessed with the MATRICS.
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