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Pathological gambling is a behavioural addiction with negative economic, social, and psychological consequences. Identification of contributing genes and pathways may improve understanding of aetiology and facilitate therapy and prevention. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of pathological gambling. Our aims were to identify pathways involved in pathological gambling, and examine whether there is a genetic overlap between pathological gambling and alcohol dependence.
Four hundred and forty-five individuals with a diagnosis of pathological gambling according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were recruited in Germany, and 986 controls were drawn from a German general population sample. A genome-wide association study of pathological gambling comprising single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses, was performed. Polygenic risk scores were generated using data from a German genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence.
No genome-wide significant association with pathological gambling was found for single markers or genes. Pathways for Huntington's disease (P-value = 6.63 × 10−3); 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling (P-value = 9.57 × 10−3); and apoptosis (P-value = 1.75 × 10−2) were significant. Polygenic risk score analysis of the alcohol dependence dataset yielded a one-sided nominal significant P-value in subjects with pathological gambling, irrespective of comorbid alcohol dependence status.
The present results accord with previous quantitative formal genetic studies which showed genetic overlap between non-substance- and substance-related addictions. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggests shared pathology between Huntington's disease and pathological gambling. This finding is consistent with previous imaging studies.
In Chapter VI, “Between Jesus, the Jew and the Other”, I discuss the otherness of Jesus the Jew with regard to his Torah observance. The law-abiding Jesus has been presented also in the 2007 Muslim document “A Common Word”.
“Interreligious Christology” seems like a contradiction in terms. Christology frames a specifically Christian discourse about the questions and tensions between the name “Jesus,” the profession “Christ,” and the proclaimed “Jesus Christ.” One might think that these questions are best discussed by scholars and intellectuals who are also committed to this specific name and naming. Interreligious theory, however, develops in the space between such clearly distinguished ideas and owned concepts.
In chapter IV, on the future of humanity, I address questions prompted by the humanity of Jesus as part of post-Shoah discourse, such as Emil Fackenheim’s question whether Jesus could have been a “Muselman”, the notion of natality in conversation with Hannah Arendt and Julia Kristeva and the memory of Jesus’ circumcision.
In chapter III, on Jesus and Jewish Continuity, I discuss how Jesus can be described as Jewish in the present and develop an understanding of Jewish continuity based on the continued reference to the biblical text.
Jesus the Jew is the primary signifier of Christianity's indebtedness to Judaism. This connection is both historical and continuous. In this book, Barbara Meyer shows how Christian memory, as largely intertwined with Jewish memory, provides a framework to examine the theological dimensions of historical Jesus research. She explores the topics that are central to the Jewishness of Jesus, such as the Christian relationship to law, and otherness as a Christological category. Through the lenses of the otherness of the Jewish Jesus for contemporary Christians, she also discusses circumcision, natality, vulnerability, and suffering in dialogue with thinkers seldom drawn into Jewish-Christian discourse, notably Hannah Arendt, Julia Kristeva, Martha Nussbaum and Adi Ophir. Meyer demonstrates how the memory of Jesus' Jewishness is a key to reconfiguring contemporary challenges to Christian thought, such as particularity and otherness, law and ethics after the Shoah, human responsibility, and divine vulnerability.
Risk populations for HIV infections tend to neglect condom use, making alternative preventive approaches necessary. Accordingly, we modelled the risk of sexual HIV transmission for condom use vs. use of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) systems with subsequent exclusion of potential sexual partners with a correctly or falsely positive test from unprotected sex with and without the use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in a bio-statistical approach. We combined a previously described model of transmission risk for HIV-exposed individuals with a newly suggested model of risk of HIV exposure for sexually active HIV-negative individuals. The model was adapted for several stages of infection and different strategies of HIV infection prevention.
HIV prevention with RDTs can reduce the transmission risk by up to 97% compared with having sex without any prevention and up to 80% compared with condom use. Nevertheless, RDT-based prevention strategies demonstrate a lack of protection in several stages of infection; in particular, RNA-based RDT systems may fail under treatment. RDT-based pre-screening of potential sex partners prior to unprotected sexual contacts substantially reduces HIV transmission risk. Combination of different prevention strategies is advisable for high-risk groups.
The influence of the potential methane reducer, fumaric acid (FA), on ruminal parameters, the rumen wall and organ weights was investigated in a long-term study with growing bulls. In all, 20 bulls were fed with maize or grass silage as roughage, and with concentrate with or without 300 g FA per animal and day during the whole fattening period. After slaughtering, the organs were weighed and blood serum was analysed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acid concentration. The ruminal fluid was analysed for short-chain fatty acids, ammonia-N and the microbial community via single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The rumen wall was examined histopathologically and results were graded as ‘no visible lesions’, ‘few inflammatory infiltrates’, ‘some inflammatory infiltrates’ or ‘several inflammatory infiltrates’. In addition, the dimensions of the rumen villi were measured. The FA supplementation decreased the serum BHB concentration and the butyric acid concentration in the ruminal fluid. The microbial community in the ruminal fluid was not influenced by FA. An interaction between FA and silage type was observed for the inflammation centres counted in the villous area of rumen papillae. This interaction was also observed in the length and surface of the rumen villi. Rumen villi results show that the influence of FA depends on the roughage used in the diet.