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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Resonant optical dipole antennas, consisting either of two arms coupled by a small gap or of a single, uncoupled arm only, are fabricated by the application of electron beam lithography and gold evaporation. Using dark-field microscopy, scattering spectra of structures with varied antenna arm length and varied gap size are obtained. The results show not only a spectral redshift for coupled structures compared to single arm structures, but also that the far-field scattering intensity is significantly higher for two arm structures with gap. In addition to the dipole structures, first fabrication results on quadrupole antennas and split-ring antennas are presented, offering novel pathways for an enhancement of the optical response function.
By electron-beam (e-beam) melting, we prepared 0.4 wt% carbon-infused copper (CuCv4), and a copper control without carbon addition (CuCv0). Scanning electron microscopy and helium ion microscopy (HIM) were performed on the as-solidified surface, fracture surface, and ion-polished surface of the CuCv4 sample. The results revealed that graphitic carbon flakes cover the as-solidified surface, and carbon nanoparticles and clusters exist in the fracture and ion-polished surfaces. HIM on the ion-polished surface revealed a unique ripple-shaped feature, which is possibly associated with the infusion of carbon nanoribbons in the copper matrix. The bulk densities were measured to be 8.86 and 8.53 g/cm3, which correspond to relative densities of 98.9% and 96.4% for the CuCv0 and CuCv4 samples, respectively. In addition, apparent electrical conductivities were measured to be 56.9 and 57.5 MS/m, respectively, for the e-beam melted CuCv0 and CuCv4 samples. These values correspond to true electrical conductivities of 100.5% IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard) and 107.4% IACS after correction for the porosity. Our results reveal remarkable promise of using covetic copper for the next generation conductors in energy applications from microelectronic devices to high-power transmission cables.
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013–March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female. The median age was 62 years (range 30–91). Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates revealed two main clusters and marked genetic diversity. Environmental samples from distributors yielded NTM though not M. marinum. We compared 56 case-patients with 185 control subjects who shopped in Chinese markets, frequency-matched by age group and sex. Risk factors for infection included skin injury to the finger or hand (odds ratio [OR]: 15·5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6·9–37·3), hand injury while preparing fish or seafood (OR 8·3; 95% CI 3·8–19·1), and purchasing tilapia (OR 3·6; 95% CI 1·1–13·9) or whiting (OR 2·7; 95% CI 1·1–6·6). A definitive environmental outbreak source was not identified.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
We present new multiband photometric results for ROTSE-I δ Sct stars and the Fourier decomposition analysis. Our result shows that most of the stars classified as ROTSE-I δ Sct stars seem to be W UMa type eclipsing variable stars.
Background: Acquired brain injury is a critical health problem in Canada, placing greater demands on health resources as improvements in intensive care lead to more patients in long-term care. Clinical diagnosis of patients with disorders of consciousness remains difficult, but advances in neuroimaging research have the potential to reshape clinical management of such patients or provide unprecedented ways to communicate with them. Building on our earlier work, this study identifies ethically salient priorities for research and policy before translation of this promising technology. Methods: We interviewed 27 Canadian researchers, ethicists, lawyers, practitioners, allied health care professionals, and patient advocacy leaders, with expertise in neuroimaging or disorders of consciousness. Interviews were semi-structured and data were analyzed for emergent themes. Results: Participants were optimistic that neuroimaging could lead to improved clinical care. They discussed mitigating the risks of misinterpreting results and communication, creating guidelines for clinical use, and defining legal competence in this neuroimaging context as key ethical priorities for translation. Conclusions: The transition of neuroimaging techniques for disorders of consciousness from research to clinical care may yield substantial benefits to these patients, but first requires resolution of research, policy, and translational issues.
This paper describes a multidisciplinary robust optimisation framework for UAV conceptual design. An in-house configuration designer system is implemented to generate the full sets of configuration data for a well-developed advanced UAV analysis tool. A fully integrated configuration designer along with the UAV analysis tool ensures that full sets of configuration data are provided simultaneously while the UAV configuration changes during optimisation. The computational strategy for probabilistic analysis is proposed by implementing a central difference method and fitting distribution for a reduced number of Monte Carlo Simulation sampling points. The minimisation of a new robust design objective function helps to enhance the reliability while other UAV performance criteria are satisfied. In addition, the fully integrated process and a probabilistic analysis strategy method demonstrate a reduction in the probability of failure under noise factors without any noticeable increase in design turnaround time. The proposed robust optimisation framework for UAV conceptual design case study yields a more trustworthy prediction of the optimal configuration and is preferable to the traditional deterministic design approach. The high fidelity analysis ANSYS Fluent 13 is performed to demonstrate the accuracy of proposed framework on baseline, deterministic and RDO configuration.
We have investigated BisGMA-TEGDMA dental composites with varying mass fractions of hydroxyapatite and silica filler. Commercially available dental composites with 60% silica filler were synthesized in the presence of nanometer-sized hydroxyapatite crystals. We have compared the mechanical properties of BisGMA-TEGDMA samples filled with silica only and those filled with silica and hydroxyapatite particles. We report on hardness as a function of crystalline content as determined by nanoindentation and microindentation.
To evaluate an internet-based preapproval antimicrobial stewardship program for sustained reduction in antimicrobial prescribing and resulting cost savings.
Retrospective cohort study and cost analysis.
Review of all doses and charges of antimicrobials dispensed to patients over 6 years (July 1, 2005–June 30, 2011) at a tertiary care pediatric hospital.
Restricted antimicrobials account for 26% of total doses but 81% of total antimicrobial charges. Winter months (November–February) and the oncology and infant and toddler units were associated with the highest antimicrobial charges. Five restricted drugs accounted for the majority (54%) of charges but only 6% of doses. With an average approval rate of 91.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.1%–91.9%), the preapproval antibiotic stewardship program saved $103,787 (95% CI, $98,583–$109,172) per year, or $14,156 (95% CI, $13,446–$14,890) per 1,000 patient-days.
A preapproval antimicrobial stewardship program effectively reduces the number of doses and subsequent charges due to restricted antimicrobials years after implementation. Hospitals with reduced resources for implementing postprescription review may benefit from a preapproval antimicrobial stewardship program. Targeting specific units, drugs, and seasons may optimize preapproval programs for additional cost savings.
We report an increase in superconducting temperature of magnesium diboride (MgB2) by minute single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) inclusions. The SWCNTs concentration was varied from 0.1wt% to 1.0wt%. The temperature dependence resistivity of sintered MgB2- SWCNTs composites containing 0.1wt%, 0.5wt% and 1.0wt% were measured and compared with that of the pure MgB2. The superconducting critical temperature (Tc) of the MgB2 increased from 40 K to as high as 42.4 K for the MgB2 containing 0.5wt% of SWCNTs. The room temperature resistivity ratio (RRR) shows dependence on the sample composition. The temperature width (ΔT) decreases with increasing SWCNT content from 0.1wt% to 1.0wt%. The normal state resistivity data were fitted with the generalized Block-Grüneisen function obtaining a Debye temperature of ∼ 900K.
Undoped 69GaAs/71GaAs isotope superlattice structures grown by MBE on n-type GaAs substrates, doped by Si to ∼3×1018 cm−3, have been used to study Ga self-diffusion in GaAs by disordering reactions. In the temperature range of 850–960°C, the SIMS measured Ga self-diffusivity values showed an activation enthalpy of 4 eV, and are larger than previously compiled Ga self-diffusivity and Al-Ga interdiffusivity values obtained under thermal equilibrium and intrinsic conditions, which are characterized by a 6 eV activation enthalpy. SIMS, CV, and TEM characterizations showed that the as-grown superlattice layers were intrinsic which became p-type with hole concentrations up to ∼2×1017 cm−3 after annealing, because the layers contain carbon. Dislocations of a density of ∼106-107 cm−2 were also present. However, the factor responsible for the presently observed larger Ga self-diffusivity values appears to be Si outdiffusion from the substrate, which was determined using CV measurements. Outdiffusion of Si decreases the n value in the substrate which causes the release of excess Ga vacancies into the superlattice layers where the supersaturated Ga vacancies enhance Ga self-diffusion.
Using 2003 Asian Barometer Survey study data, this paper examines the economic voting model in the 2002 presidential election in South Korea. The core emphasis of the paper is on an investigation of the relative effects of different dimensions/scopes of economic evaluations on voting behavior, namely whether one form of assessment (e.g., pocketbook vs. sociotropic) can have similar consequences for electoral participation as others. The findings indicate that the overall economy is salient for Koreans to shape their political choices. In other words, voting behavior in Korea depends on how she or he thinks the national economy has been for the past five years. Also found is that voters’ perceptions of their own personal financial situations did not matter much as a predictor of voter choice.
A total of 245 patients with confirmed 2009 H1N1 influenza were admitted to the intensive-care units of 28 hospitals (South Korea). Their mean age was 55·3 years with 68·6% aged >50 years, and 54·7% male. Nine were obese and three were pregnant. One or more comorbidities were present in 83·7%, and nosocomial acquisition occurred in 14·3%. In total, 107 (43·7%) patients received corticosteroids and 66·1% required mechanical ventilation. Eighty (32·7%) patients died within 30 days after onset of symptoms and 99 (40·4%) within 90 days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the clinician's decision to prescribe corticosteroids, older age, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and nosocomial bacterial pneumonia were independent risk factors for 90-day mortality. In contrast with Western countries, critical illness in Korea in relation to 2009 H1N1 was most common in older patients with chronic comorbidities; nosocomial acquisition occurred occasionally but disease in obese or pregnant patients was uncommon.
To understand paths towards higher efficiency (η) for copper-indium-gallium-(sulfur)-selenide [CIG(S)Se] solar cells, we investigated a variety of absorber composition grading schemes for various back-side gallium (Ga), front-side sulfur (S), and double-graded Ga composition depth profiles in TCAD 1D/2D simulations. We fitted experimental results of a Back-Side Graded (BSG) solar cell with our TCAD models, prior to investigating other grading and interface schemes. The BSG solar cell was fabricated on a High Productivity Combinatorial (HPC™) platform based on sputtering Cu(In,Ga) followed by selenization. Our TCAD simulation methodology for optimizing CIG(S)Se solar cells started with a sensitivity analysis using 1D Solar-cell CAPacitance Simulator (SCAPS)  by selecting a typical range of key model parameters and analyzing the impact on η. We then used a 2D commercially-available Sentaurus simulation tool  to incorporate wavelength-dependent optical characteristics. As a result, we provide insight in the impact of grading schemes on efficiency for a fixed ‘material quality’ equal to an in-house BSG solar cell. We also quantify the effects of interface layers like MoSe2 at the Mo/CIG(S)Se interface, and an inverted surface layer at the CIG(S)Se/CdS interface.
Bulk metallic glasses foams are under consideration as highly functional material, such as energy absorbers or ultra-lightweight parts, due to their porous structure combined with desirable strengths at relatively low densities. Also, the characteristics of high surface area of foams synthesized from metallic glasses make them viable candidates as emerging materials such as high-sensitivity sensors, catalysts or hydrogen storage media. In current study, bulk metallic glass foams were fabricated by extruding powder mixtures comprised of metallic glasses blended with various kinds of fugitive phases followed by dissolution of the fugitive phases in an aqueous chemical solution, for example HNO3, to yield the final porous structure. As a result of dissolution process, porous metallic glass having uniformly distributed micro-scale porosity was fabricated using a sequential synthesis technique beginning with composite particles comprised of composites of MG and a fugitive phase followed by consolidation of the composite powders via warm extrusion.
We report on experiments aimed at the generation and characterization of solid density plasmas at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg. Aluminum samples were irradiated with XUV pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength (92 eV photon energy). The pulses with duration of a few tens of femtoseconds and pulse energy up to 100 µJ are focused to intensities ranging between 1013 and 1017 W/cm2. We investigate the absorption and temporal evolution of the sample under irradiation by use of XUV and optical spectroscopy. We discuss the origin of saturable absorption, radiative decay, bremsstrahlung and atomic and ionic line emission. Our experimental results are in good agreement with simulations.
We present a new observational project to study the hierarchical triple stellar system Algol, concentrating on the semidetached eclipsing binary at the heart of the system. Over 140 high-resolution and high-S/N spectra have been secured, of which 80 are from FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and the remainder were obtained with BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory in Korea. All three components were successfully detected by the method of spectral disentangling, which yields the individual spectra of the three stars and also high-quality spectroscopic elements for both the inner and outer orbits. We present a detailed abundance study for the mass-accreting component in the inner orbit, which holds information on the history of mass transfer in the close inner binary system. We also reveal the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of the tertiary component in the outer orbit.