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To compare the effectiveness of non-surgical versus surgical therapy in elderly patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
The study cohort included 2323 elderly patients (aged 65 years and over) diagnosed with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma between 1988 and 2009, identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database of the National Cancer Institute.
The five-year overall survival rate was 23 per cent for non-surgical patients compared with 91 per cent for surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Unadjusted analysis revealed significantly improved survival in surgical patients compared with non-surgical patients (hazard ratio = 0.06; p < 0.0001). Propensity score analysis also revealed significantly improved survival in surgical patients compared with non-surgical patients (hazard ratio = 0.11; p < 0.0001).
Thyroidectomy appears to provide a survival benefit for elderly patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. High-quality prospective studies are needed to better evaluate the comparative effectiveness of immediate thyroidectomy versus observation for elderly patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
To evaluate the impact of race on survival in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
The study cohort included 17 668 patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma between 1988 and 2009, identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18 database of the National Cancer Institute.
Black patients had lower overall survival than other racial groups (p < 0.001). Black patients had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.59) after adjusting for sex, marital status, age, year of diagnosis, multifocal disease and type of surgery. A subset analysis of Black patients revealed no significant difference in overall survival for total thyroidectomy versus lobectomy (p = 0.15).
Black race is a negative prognostic factor in thyroid cancer, which cannot be explained by advanced disease stage. Further research on mechanisms by which race affects survival is needed to reveal areas of opportunity for interventions aimed at reducing health disparities in cancer care.
Ingested foreign bodies are common emergencies encountered in otolaryngology practice. The vast majority can be managed with endoscopic removal. Migration of foreign bodies into the paraglottic space is a rare event that often necessitates using a more invasive procedure for removal.
A 68-year-old man presented with sore throat and odynophagia 4 days after ingesting a fish bone.
A computed tomography scan revealed a 2.5 cm linear foreign body embedded in the larynx within the right paraglottic space. The patient underwent endoscopic examination and transcervical exploration of the paraglottic space via a posterolateral approach, with successful removal of the foreign body on the second attempt.
This is the first case report of an ingested paraglottic space foreign body managed by transcervical exploration using a posterolateral approach to the paraglottic space.
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