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Automatic extraction of filler morphology (size, orientation, and spatial distribution) in Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images is essential in many applications such as automatic quality inspection in composite manufacturing. Extraction of filler morphology greatly depends on accurate segmentation of fillers (fibers and particles), which is a challenging task due to the overlap of fibers and particles and their obscure presence in SEM images. Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) have been shown to be very effective at object recognition in digital images. This paper proposes an automatic filler detection system in SEM images, utilizing a Mask Region-based CNN architecture. The proposed system can simultaneously classify, detect, and segment fillers in SEM images, making it suitable for morphology analysis of fillers and automatic quality inspection. We also propose a novel SEM image simulation procedure to overcome the data scarcity for training a deep CNN architecture. The proposed filler detection system is trained on the simulated images. It is shown that the trained network can detect and segment fillers with higher accuracy even in the overlapping and obscure situations. The performance and robustness of the proposed system are evaluated using both simulated and real microscopic images.
To develop a theoretical model explaining the longitudinal changes in the caregiving process for family caregivers of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Taiwan.
A longitudinal, grounded theory approach using in-depth face-to-face interviews and an open-ended interview guide. We conducted 42 interviews over a two-year period; each participant was interviewed at least once every six months. All participants were interviewed in their home. The participants total of 13 family caregivers of persons with MCI.
One core theme emerged: “protective preparation.” This reflected the family caregiving process of preparation for a further decline in cognitive function, and protection from the impact of low self-esteem, accidents, and symptoms of comorbidities for the family member with MCI. Protective preparation contained three components: ambivalent normalization, vigilant preparation, and protective management.
Interventions to help family caregivers manage the changes in persons with MCI can reduce caregiver burden. Our findings could provide a knowledge base for use by healthcare providers to develop and implement strategies to reduce caregiver burden for family caregivers of persons with MCI.
Whole-mount immunofluorescence technique provides a way to reveal integrated expression patterns of biological molecules in individuals. Well-documented morphological preservation ability in biology makes aldehydes the fixative of choice. Cross-linking among biocomponents and aldehydes is the key for maintaining morphology but masks the biological molecules for immunodetection. This study performs an easily accessible method by applying heat-induced retrieval, which can rescue the antigenicity of the proteins and also enhance the labeling sensitivity of the fluorescence dye in overfixed zebrafish embryos. The results show that the immunoreactivities of antibodies to myosin in the muscles, green fluorescent protein in the blood vessels and the nuclei in the cells can be recovered significantly, and the morphology of the zebrafish embryos, even the fragile mutants, is at the same time well maintained. Therefore, we provide a choice for antigen retrieval, which is effective for whole-mount immunofluorescence microscopy.
Indwelling urinary catheters are the most common source of infections in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nurse-generated daily reminders to physicians to remove unnecessary urinary catheters 5 days after insertion.
A time-sequence nonrandomized intervention study.
Adult ICUs (medical, surgical, cardiovascular surgical, neurosurgical, and coronary care) of a tertiary-care university medical center.
All patients admitted to the adult ICUs during a 2-year period. The study consisted of a 12-month observational phase (15,960 patient-days) followed by a 12-month intervention phase (15,525 patient-days).
Daily reminders to physicians from the nursing staff to remove unnecessary urinary catheters 5 days after insertion.
The duration of urinary catheterization was significantly reduced during the intervention phase (from 7.0 ± 1.1 days to 4.6 ± 0.7 days; P < .001). The rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) was also significantly reduced (from 11.5 ± 3.1 to 8.3 ± 2.5 patients with CAUTI per 1,000 catheter-days; P = .009). There was a linear relationship between the monthly average duration of catheterization and the rate of CAUTI (r = 0.50; P = .01). The excess monthly cost of antibiotics for CAUTI was reduced by 69% (from $4,021 ± $1,800 to $1,220 ± $941; P = .004).
This study demonstrated that a simple measure instituted as part of a continuous quality improvement program significantly reduced the duration of urinary catheterization, rate of CAUTI, and additional costs of antibiotics to manage CAUTI.
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