Studies have demonstrated that isolated soya protein (ISP) can slow the progression of renal injury, reduce blood pressure and improve the serum lipid profile in experimental animals and human subjects. The mechanisms and components of soya responsible have not been fully established. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of the hydrophilic supernatant fraction (SF) and the hydrophobic precipitate fraction (PF) isolated from soya protein hydrolysate on renal function, lipid metabolism and blood pressure in five-sixths nephrectomized rats. Experimental animals were subjected to a nephrectomy and allocated to four groups (180g casei/g, 180g IS/g, 100g casei/g with 80g S/g, and 100g casei/g with 80g P/g). The SF group had the most significant decreases in blood pressure and total cholesterol, as well as a significantly retarded progression of the experimentally induced renal disease, compared with the other groups. The PF group exhibited a significantly increased faecal excretion of total steroids. The serum creatinine, level of proteinuria, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, and blood pressure were significantly reduced, and HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased, in the ISP and PF groups compared with the casein group, but no significant differences were observed between the ISP and PF groups. These results suggest that both soya protein hydrolysate fractions favourably affected chronic renal failure induced by a five-sixths nephrectomy, and the hydrophilic fraction of soya protein hydrolysate had the most pronounced effect on attenuating hypertension and slowing the progression of renal disease.