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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressively attracted generous attention because of their versatile applications in solid state lighting and full color displays. High-efficiency is crucial for OLED devices being energy saving and to have a longer lifespan. Numerous approaches have been attempted to attain high-efficiency OLEDs via newly synthesized organic materials, light-extraction structure design and energy-efficient device architectures. The organic materials used in optoelectronic devices have inherently low dielectric constant. In this work, we demonstrate a comprehensive model to quantitatively investigate the role of dielectric constant of the electron transporting material on the electric field distribution, charge drift and exciton recombination probability across the emissive layer (EML) and electron transport layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode via commercialized electrical simulation package SETFOS.
The bigfin reef squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana is a neritic species widely distributed in coastal waters of the Indo-Pacific region and is of interest to fisheries for its high commercial value. Squid samples were collected from Keelung (KL) and Penghu (PH), around northern Taiwan from October 2012 to September 2013. A total of 949 squid were examined, and 620 squid were aged using statoliths. The age range of the squid in KL (55–183 days) was similar to that in PH (77–186 days). The squid hatched almost year-round, except in January and December in KL. Two seasonal cohorts were identified: a spring cohort (hatched in March to May) and an autumn cohort (July to October). Concentrations of nine trace elements in statoliths were analysed using solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant differences in Fe/Ca, Cu/Ca and Sr/Ca were found between the two locations, while significant differences in concentration ratios of Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca were noted between the two seasonal cohorts. Results of a principal component analysis and cluster analysis varied in life-history traits between the two geographic stocks and in elemental concentrations between the two seasonal cohorts. Squid in KL and PH might undertake different migration routes, while seasonal variability in oceanographic conditions was apparent in the two locations.
To develop a theoretical model explaining the longitudinal changes in the caregiving process for family caregivers of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Taiwan.
A longitudinal, grounded theory approach using in-depth face-to-face interviews and an open-ended interview guide. We conducted 42 interviews over a two-year period; each participant was interviewed at least once every six months. All participants were interviewed in their home. The participants total of 13 family caregivers of persons with MCI.
One core theme emerged: “protective preparation.” This reflected the family caregiving process of preparation for a further decline in cognitive function, and protection from the impact of low self-esteem, accidents, and symptoms of comorbidities for the family member with MCI. Protective preparation contained three components: ambivalent normalization, vigilant preparation, and protective management.
Interventions to help family caregivers manage the changes in persons with MCI can reduce caregiver burden. Our findings could provide a knowledge base for use by healthcare providers to develop and implement strategies to reduce caregiver burden for family caregivers of persons with MCI.
We report experimental and computational studies of Ba doping for Cs in Cs2TiNb6O18, a material with potential to be an exceptional ceramic waste form for Cs sequestration. Three co-doping (simultaneous metal reduction for charge balance of Ba2+ for Cs+) schemes have been experimentally tested: Ti4+ for Nb5+, Ti3+ for Ti4+ and Nb4+ for Nb5+. Unfortunately, none showed conclusively that the co-substitution was successful. Atomistic modelling was then performed on all three schemes using novel potentials to assess the energetic feasibility, from these the most favourable scenario is reduction of Nb5+ to Nb4+.
Hypoxia is the primary stimulus for the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in both fetal and adult life. Here, we investigated fetal plasma EPO concentrations in monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies with selective intrauterine growth restriction (sIUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. We diagnosed sIUGR in presence of (1) birth-weight discordance >20% and (2) either twin with a birth weight <10th percentile. An abnormal UA Doppler was defined as a persistent absent-reverse end diastolic flow (AREDF). The intertwin EPO ratio was calculated as the plasma EPO level of the smaller (or small-for-gestational-age) twin divided by the EPO concentration of the larger (or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA)) twin. Thirty-two MC twin pairs were included. Of these, 17 pairs were normal twins (Group 1), seven pairs were twins with sIUGR without UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 2), and eight pairs were twins with sIUGR and UA Doppler abnormalities (Group 3). The highest EPO ratio was identified in Group 3 (p < .001) but no significant differences were observed between Groups 1 and 2. Fetal hemoglobin levels did not differ significantly in the three groups, and fetal EPO concentration did not correlate with gestational age at birth. We conclude that fetal plasma EPO concentrations are selectively increased in MC twin pregnancies with sIUGR and abnormal UA Doppler, possibly as a result of uncompensated hypoxia.
We discuss a radiocarbon study of sediment samples collected from Nanfu terrace in western Taiwan. From these, we extracted humic acids (HA) and humin from the very fine and coarse grain-size fractions using a standard acid-alkali-acid pretreatment. The humin extracts were combusted at 400 and 1100 °C by stepped-combustion, to yield a low-temperature (LT) carbon component and a high-temperature (HT) carbon component. We compare the ages of the LT and HT humin fractions to the HA fractions, in samples collected at 2 depths within the Nanfu terrace. As in previous stepped-combustion studies on sediments, we find that the HA ages are the youngest on average, and overlap the LT ages, and that the carbon contained in the HT fraction is always distinctly older than the LT and HA ages. To better understand the relationship between 14C age and combustion temperature, we conducted an incremental stepped-combustion experiment with one of the samples (1E) using 50 °C steps that ranged from 300 to 1100 °C. The 14C results of the stepped-combustion products show a clear division between 2 isotopically identifiable carbon constituents, from carbon released below 400 °C and carbon released above 550 °C. By comparing the δ13C and 14C results, we find evidence for a third carbon isotopic component in the humin that is released when combusted at ∼500 °C.
Habit has been defined as the automatic performance of a usual behaviour. The present paper reports the relationships of variables from a Model of Goal Directed Behavior to four scales in regard to parents’ habits when feeding their children: habit of (i) actively involving child in selection of vegetables; (ii) maintaining a positive vegetable environment; (iii) positive communications about vegetables; and (iv) controlling vegetable practices. We tested the hypothesis that the primary predictor of each habit variable would be the measure of the corresponding parenting practice.
Internet survey data from a mostly female sample. Primary analyses employed regression modelling with backward deletion, controlling for demographics and parenting practices behaviour.
Houston, Texas, USA.
Parents of 307 pre-school (3–5-year-old) children.
Three of the four models accounted for about 50 % of the variance in the parenting practices habit scales. Each habit scale was primarily predicted by the corresponding parenting practices scale (suggesting validity). The habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection was also most strongly predicted by two barriers and rudimentary self-efficacy; the habit of maintaining a positive vegetable environment by one barrier; the habit of maintaining positive communications about vegetables by an emotional scale; and the habit of controlling vegetable practices by a perceived behavioural control scale.
The predictiveness of the psychosocial variables beyond parenting practices behaviour was modest. Discontinuing the habit of ineffective controlling parenting practices may require increasing the parent’s perceived control of parenting practices, perhaps through simulated parent–child interactions.
The age and growth of Kwangtung skate, Dipturus kwangtungensis, in the waters off northern Taiwan were estimated from 422 specimens collected between July 2006 and July 2008 at the Tashi fishing market in north-eastern Taiwan. The sexes-combined relationship between total length (TL) and centrum diameter (D) was estimated as follows: TL = 14.11D0.888 (N = 411, r2 = 0.94, P < 0.001). Growth band pairs (comprised of translucent and opaque bands) in vertebrae were determined to form once annually, based on the centrum edge analysis. Up to 14 band pairs were found for both sexes. The von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF), two-parameter VBGF, the Robertson function, and the Gompertz function were used to fit the observed length-at-age data. The Akaike information criterion corrected indicated that the Gompertz function best fit the observed length at age data. Sex-specific growth functions were not significantly different; the sexes-combined growth parameters were estimated as follows: asymptotic length (L∞) = 96.7 cm TL, growth coefficient (kG) = 0.144 year−1 and constant (t0) = 5.45 year (N = 364, P < 0.01).
To model effective vegetable parenting practices using the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices construct scales.
An Internet survey was conducted with parents of pre-school children to assess their agreement with effective vegetable parenting practices and Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices items. Block regression modelling was conducted using the composite score of effective vegetable parenting practices scales as the outcome variable and the Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices constructs as predictors in separate and sequential blocks: demographics, intention, desire (intrinsic motivation), perceived barriers, autonomy, relatedness, self-efficacy, habit, anticipated emotions, perceived behavioural control, attitudes and lastly norms. Backward deletion was employed at the end for any variable not significant at P<0·05.
Houston, TX, USA.
Three hundred and seven parents (mostly mothers) of pre-school children.
Significant predictors in the final model in order of relationship strength included habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection, habit of positive vegetable communications, respondent not liking vegetables, habit of keeping a positive vegetable environment and perceived behavioural control of having a positive influence on child’s vegetable consumption. The final model’s adjusted R2 was 0·486.
This was the first study to test scales from a behavioural model to predict effective vegetable parenting practices. Further research needs to assess these Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices scales for their (i) predictiveness of child consumption of vegetables in longitudinal samples and (ii) utility in guiding design of vegetable parenting practices interventions.
Increasing a parent’s ability to influence a child’s vegetable intake may require reducing the parent’s use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. The present study was designed to understand the psychosocial influences on ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted to model use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices using validated scales from a Model of Goal Directed Vegetable Parenting Practices.
The dependent variable was a composite ineffective vegetable parenting practices index. The independent variables included validated subscales of intention, habit, perceived barriers, desire, competence, autonomy, relatedness, attitudes, norms, perceived behavioural control and anticipated emotions. Models were analysed using block regression with backward deletion.
Parents of 307 pre-school children (3–5 years old).
Variables significantly positively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included habit of controlling vegetable practices (standardized β=0·349, P<0·0001) and desire (standardized β=0·117, P=0·025). Variables significantly negatively related to ineffective vegetable parenting practices in order of relationship strength included perceived behavioural control of negative parenting practices (standardized β=–0·215, P<0000), the habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection (standardized β=–0·142, P=0·008), anticipated negative parent emotional response to child vegetable refusal (standardized β=–0·133, P=0·009), autonomy (standardized β=–0·118, P=0.014), attitude about negative effects of vegetables (standardized β=–0·118, P=0·015) and descriptive norms (standardized β=–0·103, P=0·032). The model accounted for 40·5 % of the variance in use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
The present study is the first report of psychometrically tested scales to predict use of ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Innovative intervention procedures will need to be designed and tested to reduce ineffective vegetable parenting practices.
In order to better understand the individual-level motives for ticket-splitting, Taiwan's Election and Democratization Study has since 2001 included a question aimed at measuring respondents’ preferences for checks and balances. We argue that this set of questions, designed to measure a combination of Fiorina's policy-balancing hypothesis and Ladd's cognitive Madisonianism, is inconsistent with principles of survey methodology and thus produces data that are suboptimal. Following a method developed by Carsey and Layman, we propose an alternative concept, the policy-balancing index derived from the perceived ideological distance between respondent and political parties, which both avoids methodological violations and provides us with a more precise concept to work with. We test the index and find it to be a significant determinant of ticket-splitting behavior.
Two-photon fabrication is a powerful method of fabricating complex microstructures. Superresolution by methods analogous to stimulated emission depletion (STED) has been described previously, enabling sub-100 nm imaging with 800 nm light. STED-related methods of enhancing imaging resolution require photoresists with exposure conditions for which the photoresist exhibits negative contrast, i.e., image density decreases with increasing exposure from the depletion beam. We have observed decreasing voxel size with increasing exposure during two-photon initiated polymerization of acrylate- and methacrylate-based photoresists, that is, negative imaging contrast, γ < 0, independent of the type of photoinitiator. Negative contrast is not observed in epoxy-type photoresists containing photoacid generators. An investigation of the exposure conditions has led us to conclude that radical-radical recombination at high exposure is responsible for negative contrast. Results of the investigation, discussion of the proposed mechanism for negative contrast and implications for two-photon superresolution will be presented.
Hot Isostatic Pressing of Cs-exchanged IONSIV IE-911 samples is shown to produce a mixture of ceramic phases, the nature and mass fractions of these have been determined by Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction data. The main Cs phase that forms is Cs2TiNb6O18, after this reaches approximately 30% of the total crystalline content the remaining Cs is partitioned into Cs2ZrSi6O15. Durability tests using the PCT-B method for 7 days at 90 °C with deionised water lead to Cs leach rates of 0.032 and 0.038 g∙m−2∙day−1 for samples exchanged to 6 and 12 wt% Cs, respectively, indicating a durable wasteform is produced.
Three types of Ganium Nitride (GaN) transistors were studied in this work. The devices were fabricated and exhibited unique characteristics over on-state current and off-state blocking performances. We also compared the performance differences of devices fabricated by multiepitaxial GaN/AlGaN layers on different substrates (Sapphire and Si) and evaluated the correlations among starting substrate, device variation, and manufacturing uniformity. The first device is a normally-on device with Sapphire substrate which shows good drain saturation current (Idsat) and breakdown characteristics, but the gate leakage current is quite large. The second device is a normally-off GaN transistor named metal-insulate-semiconductor (MIS) heterojunction field-effect transistor (MIS-HFET) which exhibits good performance with threshold voltage (Vth) of 3V and breakdown voltage (Vbd) of over 1800V. However the third device is a normally-off GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-elect transistor (MOSFET) structure which is rather difficult to exhibit good blocking characteristic due to inadequate doping process control of the reduce-surface-field (RESURF) region.
Background: Depression is a common behavioral and psychological symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aims of the present study were to determine the rate of depression in Taiwanese patients with AD using the National Institutes of Mental Health Provisional Criteria for Depression in AD (NIMH-dAD criteria) and to investigate the association of depression with other behavioral and psychological symptoms.
Methods: A consecutive series of 302 AD patients registered in a dementia clinic were investigated in this study. All patients met the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association for probable AD. The rates of depression were determined according to the criteria of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders for major depression (DSM-IV), the International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) for neurotic depression, the depression subscale of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and the NIMH-dAD criteria. Depression severity was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The rates of depression determined by the NIMH-dAD criteria were compared with the rates derived from each of the other instruments. Other behavioral and psychological symptoms were assessed using NPI. A behavioral neurologist or a geriatric psychiatrist interviewed all the patients.
Results: Using the NIMH-dAD criteria, it was found that 90 (29.8%) of the AD patients had depression, and all depressive symptoms in NIMH-dAD were significantly higher among depressed patients. Among other depression instruments, the frequency of depression was lowest using the DSM-IV major depression criteria (9.3%) and highest with the NPI depression subscale (54%). Behavioral and psychological symptoms determined with NPI were significantly higher among depressed patients in all domains except euphoria.
Conclusions: This is the first study of depression in Taiwanese patients with AD using the NIMH-dAD criteria. Our findings suggest that comorbid depression is high in Taiwanese patients with AD. It is clinically important to note the high frequency of most behavioral and psychological symptoms among depressed AD patients.
Multiple pregnancies are thought to be associated with a high incidence of perinatal complications such as preterm labor, preeclampsia and low birth weight. But the true mechanisms of these obstetric complications are still uncertain. The components of amniotic fluid reflect the pathophysiology features of the fetus. Amniotic fluid soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1(sFLT1), soluble endoglin (sENG), and adiponectin reflect the oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status and are associated with preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. We prospectively collected amniotic fluids during amniocentesis from singleton and twin pregnancies. Samples were analyzed for levels of sFLT1, sENG, and adiponectin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of sENG and sFLT1 were significantly increased in twin pregnancies. Adiponectin was not significantly different between the two groups. These findings would suggest that twin fetuses suffer from more oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status from the early trimesters.
Two-Photon initiated polymerization (TPIP) has shown great promise for fabrication of complex micro- and nano-structures. The method has been used to fabricate such structures over small areas (< 1 mm2) because of slow fabrication speeds and resulting long fabrication times. In order for TPIP to reach practical application in a commercial setting fabrication times need to be reduced by orders of magnitude. We report results on a highly photosensitive initiation system for photoresists based on free radical and cationic polymerization, where photosensitivity is increased 102- to 103-fold compared to previously reported photoinitiation systems. Threshold writing speeds are determined for critical exposure conditions, including laser power, type and concentration of photoinitiation system, and photoresist type. Surface roughness, a critical parameter in applications such as optics and microfluidics, for example, is also used to determine threshold writing speed. The utility of the approach is demonstrated by making a cell phone keypad light guide from a microreplication tool fabricated using the highly photosensitive photoresist.
A series of tetrahedral tetramers of 2,5-diphenyl substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds were synthesized and characterized for electron-transporting layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The multiple-branch design of the oxadiazole tetramers intends to increase the melting temperature and to generate glass phase of the low molar mass derivative such as 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD). We observed temperatures of the glass phase transition for the oxadiazole tetramer with appropriate peripheral substituents, indicative of amorphous characteristics of the molecule in spite of highly symmetrical molecular framework. The luminescence-current-voltage characteristics of multilayer OLED devices containing the oxadiazole tetramer or PBD as ETL were examined to evaluate the efficiency of our multiple-branch molecular design.