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The structural integrity of the anterior cingulum has been repeatedly observed to be abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. More recently, aberrant myelination of frontal fasciculi, especially, cingulum has been proposed to underlie delayed corollary discharges that can affect sense of agency and contribute to delusions of control (Schneiderian delusions). Using the magnetization transfer phenomenon at an ultra-high field 7T MRI, we investigated the putative myelin content of cingulum bundle in patients with schizophrenia.
Seventeen clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and 20 controls were recruited for this 7T MRI study. We used a region-of-interest method and extracted magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) from left and right dorsal cingulum bundles and estimated patients v. controls differences. We also related the cingulum MTR values to the severity of Schneiderian delusions.
Patients had a significant reduction in the MTR, indicating reduced myelin content, in the cingulum bundle (right cingulum Hedges’ g = 0.91; left cingulum g = 0.03). The reduced MTR of left cingulum was associated with higher severity of Schneiderian delusions (τ = −0.45, p = 0.026) but no such relationship was seen for the right cingulum MTR (τ = −0.136, p = 0.50) among patients. The association between the left cingulum MTR and Schneiderian delusions was not explained by the presence of other delusions, hallucinations, disorganization or negative symptoms.
Dysmyelination of the cingulum bundle is seen in a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia and may be involved in the mechanism of Schneiderian delusions.
We prove that the matrix analogue of the Veronese curve is strongly extremal in the sense of Diophantine approximation, thereby resolving a question posed by Beresnevich, Kleinbock and Margulis (2015) in the affirmative.
We highlight a connection between Diophantine approximation and the lower Assouad dimension by using information about the latter to show that the Hausdorff dimension of the set of badly approximable points that lie in certain non-conformal fractals, known as self-affine sponges, is bounded below by the dynamical dimension of these fractals. For self-affine sponges with equal Hausdorff and dynamical dimensions, the set of badly approximable points has full Hausdorff dimension in the sponge. Our results, which are the first to advance beyond the conformal setting, encompass both the case of Sierpiński sponges/carpets (also known as Bedford–McMullen sponges/carpets) and the case of Barański carpets. We use the fact that the lower Assouad dimension of a hyperplane diffuse set constitutes a lower bound for the Hausdorff dimension of the set of badly approximable points in that set.
We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of giant low surface brightness (GLSB) galaxies. GLSB galaxies are extreme late type spirals that are large, isolated and poorly evolved compared to regular spiral galaxies. Earlier studies have indicated that their nuclei have relatively low mass black holes. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we selected a sample of 30 GLSB galaxies that showed broad Hα emission lines in their AGN spectra. In some galaxies such as UGC 6284, the broad component of Hα is more related to outflows rather than the black hole. One galaxy (UGC 6614) showed two broad components in Hα, one associated with the black hole and the other associated with an outflow event. We derived the nuclear black hole (BH) masses of 29 galaxies from their broad Hα parameters. We find that the nuclear BH masses lie in the range 105 – 107 M⊙. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion σe was determined from the underlying stellar spectra. We compared our results with the existing BH mass - velocity dispersion (MBH–σe) correlations and found that the majority of our sample lie in the low BH mass regime and below the MBH–σe correlation. The effects of galaxy orientation in the measurement of σe and the increase of σe due to the effects of bar are probable reasons for the observed offset for some galaxies, but in many galaxies the offset is real. A possible explanation for the MBH–σe offset could be lack of mergers and accretion events in the history of these galaxies which leads to a lack of BH-bulge co-evolution.
Copper indium diselenide (CIS) based solar cells are one among the promising thin film solar cells. Most of the processes reported for the preparation of CIS directly or indirectly involve Se vapor or H2Se gases which are extremely toxic to health and environment. In this work, we report the preparation of CIS thin films by stacked layers of Glass/In/Se/Cu2Se and Glass/In/Se/Cu2Se/Se. For this, first indium (In) thin film was thermally evaporated on glass substrate on which selenium (Se) and copper selenide (Cu2Se) thin films were deposited sequentially by chemical bath deposition. Selenium thin films were grown from an aqueous solution containing Na2SeSO3 and CH3COOH at room temperature, triple deposition for 7, 7 and 10 min from consecutive baths. Copper selenide thin films were deposited at 35 °C for 1 hour from an aqueous bath containing CuSO4, Na2SeSO3 and NH4OH. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the thin films formed at 400 °C from the precursor layer containing extra selenium layer showed the presence of chalcopyrite CuInSe2, without any secondary phase. Morphology of all the samples was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-Visible absorption spectra of these films and the values were 1.1 eV and 1 eV respectively for CIS thin films formed at 400 °C from the selenium deficient and selenium rich precursor layers. Electrical characterizations were done using photocurrent measurements. Thus preparation of a CuInSe2 absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process may open up a low cost technique for the fabrication of CIS based solar cells.
Silver antimony selenide (AgSbSe2) thin films were prepared by heating sequentially deposited antimony sulphide (Sb2S3), silver selenide (Ag2Se) and Ag thin films in close contact with a selenium thin film. Sb2S3 thin film was prepared from chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3, Ag2Se from the bath containing AgNO3 and Na2SeSO3 and Se thin films from an acidified solution of Na2SeSO3, at room temperature on cleaned glass substrates. Ag thin film was deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation. The annealing temperature was varied from 300-390°C in vacuum (∼10−3 Torr) for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the films formed at 350 °C was polycrystalline AgSb(S,Se)2 or AgSbSe2 depending on selenium thin film thickness. Morphology of these films was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The elemental analysis was done using Energy Dispersive X-ray technique. Optical characterization of the thin films was done by optical transmittance spectra. The electrical characterizations were done using Hall effect and photocurrent measurements. A photovoltaic structure: Glass/ITO/CdS/AgSbSe2/Ag was formed, in which CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition. J-V characteristics of this PV structure showed Voc=370 mV and Jsc=0.5 mA/cm2 under illumination using a tungsten halogen lamp.
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