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International best-practice guidelines for the management of first-episode psychosis have recommended the provision of psychoeducation for multifamily groups. While there is ample evidence of their efficacy in multiepisode psychosis, there is a paucity of evidence supporting this approach specifically for first-episode psychosis. We sought to determine whether a six-week caregiver psychoeducation programme geared specifically at first-episode psychosis improves caregiver knowledge and attitudes.
Caregivers of people with first-episode psychosis completed a 23-item adapted version of the self-report Family Questionnaire (KQ) and a 17-item adapted version of the self-report Drug Attitudes Inventory (DAI) before and after the six-week DETECT Information and Support Course (DISC). Using a Generalised Linear Repeated Measures Model, we analyzed the differences in proportions of correct answers before and after the programme.
Over a 24-month study period, 31 caregivers (13 higher socioeconomic; 13 lower socioeconomic; five unspecified socioeconomic; 19 female; 12 male) participated in the DISC programme and completed inventories before and after the course. Knowledge of psychosis and specific knowledge of medication treatment improved among caregivers overall (p < .01; effect sizes 0.78 and 0.94 respectively). There were no significant gender or socioeconomic differences in any improvement.
This study confirms that caregiver psychoeducation specifically for first-episode psychosis directly improves knowledge of the illness overall and, in particular, knowledge of medication. Gender is not a factor in this, while the lack of any socioeconomic differences dispels the myth that patients in lower socioeconomic groups are disadvantaged because their caregivers know less.
Although there is some evidence that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is geographically stable, few have examined whether the phenomenon is temporally stable. We examined DUP in two cohorts within two discrete time periods (1995–1999 and 2003–2005) spanning a decade in the same geographically defined community psychiatric service with no early intervention programme. Patients were diagnosed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) and we determined the DUP using the Beiser Scale. The DUP of the 240 participants did not differ significantly between study periods.
Signal detection limit (SDL), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation of a portable Raman spectrometer were measured for smokeless gunpowder stabilizers, diphenylamine (DPA) and ethyl centralite (EC), in acetone, acetonitrile, ethanol, and methanol. Acetone yielded the lowest LOD for three of four DPA peaks, and acetonitrile yielded the lowest LOD for two of three EC peaks and the remaining DPA peak. When gold nanoparticles were added to the DPA solutions in acetone and acetonitrile, statistically significant changes were observed (DPA peak position, full width at half maximum, and/or total area) and SDL was improved for the majority of all peaks in both solvents.
Environmental rights, also known as the human rights or constitutional rights that are used for the protection of the environment, have proliferated over the last forty-five years. However, the precise levels of protection that they represent has since been a major question associated with this phenomenon. Environmental Rights: The Development of Standards systematically investigates this question by analyzing the emerging standards of environmental protection that are associated with such rights and the way that those associations are becoming formalized. It covers all of the relevant human rights treaties to illustrate how environmental rights standards are emerging in this dynamic area. Bringing together an elite group of scholars, this book discusses significant new insights into the way that environmental rights are developing, the standards of protection that they confer, and the way that standards in the field of environmental rights can potentially be further developed in the future.
This article examines the manner in which ‘macro’ legal analysis can potentially assist in overcoming some of the issues that are faced in the understanding and development of global environmental governance (GEG). It argues that the analysis of law through separate and distinct disciplines – such as environmental law, trade law, corporate law, and human rights law – results in what this article refers to as ‘micro’ legal analysis. As such, it contends that this can have the effect of creating obstacles in the development of coherent and effective legal and policy choices related to the protection of the environment. It illustrates these arguments with examples of practical problems that have arisen from the separation of legal issues in practice and provides the theoretical underpinnings, based on the critique of international lawyers, for the application of ‘macro’ legal analysis. In other words, it argues for a form of analysis that would consider the entire range of relevant legal disciplines in a unitary process. It then provides a methodology for the development and application of ‘macro’ legal analysis in relation to environmental issues. Finally, it considers the potential that this approach could have within the field of GEG and comments on the implications that it could have for the way in which lawyers are trained in the future.