Objective: Infective endocarditis is uncommon condition, with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. It is less common in children, albeit tending to be associated with congenital cardiac malformations. We describe our experience of the need for surgical treatment in children with infective endocarditis. Patients and methods: We analyzed retrospectively the records of 9 children aged below 16 years seen between May 2003 and March 2005 with infective endocarditis, reviewing the demographic details, clinical presentation, microbiological and echocardiographic data, operative findings, and outcome. Results: Apart from pre-existing renal insufficiency in 1 patient, congenital cardiac malformations were the predisposing factors. Blood cultures were positive in 3, but remained negative in the other 6 patients. The indications for surgical treatment included uncontrolled sepsis, congestive heart failure, recurrent endocarditis, patch or graft dehiscence, and pseudoaneursymal formation. Death due to uncontrolled sepsis resulting in multiorgan failure occurred in 1 patient, who had tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Another patient died late postoperatively due to cardiac failure after relapse of the endocarditis in the setting of negative blood cultures. Conclusion: Despite advances in antimicrobial therapy, diagnosis, and measures of treatment for infective endocarditis, complications continue to be responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. Since blood cultures are frequently negative, clinical and echocardiographic findings should be the major determinants of strategies used for treatment. We believe that our small series of patients seen over the past two years in which surgical treatment was performed will be helpful in guiding the clinical perspectives for children with infective endocarditis.