Blood examination was conducted for the four Gidra-speaking village groups in Papua New Guinea, who were characterized by high Fe intake and high malaria prevalence with marked inter-village differences. The northern riverine villagers, whose Fe intake was higher than the other three village groups, did not suffer from Fe-deficiency anaemia in their malaria-endemic environment; nor did the inland villagers, with their second highest Fe intake and their malaria-free environment, suffer from Fe-deficiency anaemia. However, several individuals of the southern riverine village suffered from anaemia in a malaria-endemic environment, although their Fe intake was almost the same as the inland villagers’. A considerable proportion of the coastal villagers were anaemic, reflecting the lowest Fe intake and the highest malaria prevalence. An inter-village comparison of the relationships between haemoglobiin levels and transferrin saturation revealed that the southern riverine villagers needed smaller amounts of circulating Fe for erythropoiesis than the northern riverine and inland villagers, reflecting the long-term human-environment conditions such as the density of malaria vectors and the people’s dietary habits. Fe supplementation was not judged effective against hypoferraemia and/or anaemia in such a population. As the incidence of malaria had no significant long-lasting effect on Fe stores or circulating Fe concentration, but did have an effect on anaemia, the hypothesis that malaria causes a transfer of Fe from the blood to parenchymal tissues as a defence against infectious diseases was not supported.