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Commercialization of 2,4-D-resistant soybean varieties allows for postemergence (POST) applications of 2,4-D in soybean. With the increase in POST applications of 2,4-D in soybean, shifts in weed populations may occur. A long-term field trial was conducted over 7 yr in a corn-soybean rotation. Weed populations were subjected to four herbicide strategies with variable levels of 2,4-D reliance. The strategies used included 1) diversified glyphosate strategy with six herbicide sites of action (SOAs); 2) 2,4-D reliant strategy with three SOAs; 3) diversified 2,4-D reliant strategy with seven SOAs; and 4) fully diversified strategy with eight SOAs. Soil residual herbicides were used for both corn and soybean years, except for the 2,4-D-reliant strategy, which used only a residual herbicide during the corn years. A 52% or greater reduction in weed densities for all herbicide strategies, except the 2,4-D-reliant strategy, was observed by the end of the study. However, the density of weeds tolerant to 2,4-D, such as monocots, increased after 3 yr of selection pressure, and more than doubled after 5 yr of selection pressure in the 2,4-D-reliant strategy. Additionally, in the 2,4-D-reliant strategy with three SOAs, species richness was 30% higher in the soil seedbank compared to herbicides strategies with six or more SOAs. In order to delay weed shifts, diversified herbicide strategies with more than three SOAs that include residual herbicides should be used in corn:soybean rotational systems that use 2,4-D-resistant soybean.
The addition of dicamba as a weed control option in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable tool. However, this technology must be utilized with other herbicide sites of action (SOAs) to reduce selection pressure on weed communities and ensure its prolonged usefulness. A long-term trial was conducted for 7 yr in Indiana to evaluate weed community densities and species richness with four levels of dicamba selection pressure in a corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean rotation. Monocot densities and richness increased over time in the dicamba-reliant treatment. Dicot densities in the dicamba-reliant treatment declined over time, but dicot richness increased. The soil weed seedbank was affected by the varying herbicide strategies. The dicamba-reliant strategy had greater than 43% higher total weed density than all other treatments, primarily due to having a monocot density that was at least 71% higher than the other treatments. The fully diversified strategy with eight SOAs and residual herbicides used every year had the lowest total weed species richness in the soil seedbank, which supported the in-field observations.
The introduction of 2,4-D–resistant soybean will provide an additional POST herbicide site of action for control of herbicide-resistant broadleaf weeds. The introduction of this technology also brings concern of off-site movement of 2,4-D onto susceptible crops such as sensitive soybean and tomato. The 2,4-D formulation approved for use in 2,4-D–resistant soybean restricts application of the herbicide to nozzles that produce very coarse to ultra-coarse droplet spectrums. The use of larger droplet spectrums for broadcast applications can reduce herbicide deposition onto target weeds and thus influence herbicide efficacy. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of nozzle design on herbicide deposition onto target plants and the resulting efficacy of a POST application of 280 g ha−1 glyphosate plus 280 g ha−1 2,4-D. The TTI11004 nozzle produced an ultra-coarse droplet spectrum and reduced coverage and deposition density on spray cards as compared with the XR11004 and TT11004 nozzles that produced medium droplet spectrums. The AIXR11004 nozzle also reduced deposition density on spray cards but did not reduce coverage. Herbicide solution deposition onto glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, tall waterhemp, giant ragweed, and horseweed ranged from 0.28 to 0.72 µl cm−2 and was not influenced by nozzle design. Herbicide efficacy was reduced by the TTI11004 nozzle on Palmer amaranth and horseweed compared with the AIXR11004, TT11004, and XR11004 nozzles when applications were made to either high densities of plants or plants exceeding the labeled height. The use of the AIXR11004 and TTI11004 nozzles that are listed as approved nozzles for glyphosate plus 2,4-D applications on 2,4-D–resistant soybean did not reduce herbicide deposition onto four of the most troublesome broadleaves and did not reduce herbicide efficacy when applied in conjunction with lower weed densities and smaller weeds.
Dicamba-resistant soybean technology provides an additional site of action for POST control of herbicide-resistant broadleaf weeds in soybean but also raises concern of off-site movement and damage to sensitive crops in adjacent fields. Dicamba formulations approved for use on dicamba-resistant soybean require applicators to use nozzles producing large droplets to reduce the risk of spray-particle drift. The use of nozzles with relatively larger droplet spectra can reduce herbicide deposition on target weeds, especially if a filtering effect from the crop canopy occurs. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of broadcast nozzle design on the deposition and efficacy of 280 g ha−1 glyphosate plus 140 g ha−1 dicamba applied POST to four herbicide-resistant weed species. The TTI11004 nozzle, the original nozzle labeled for dicamba applications on dicamba-resistant soybean, reduced deposition coverage and density on spray cards compared with the TT11004 and XR11004 nozzle. The AIXR11004 nozzle produces a very coarse droplet spectrum and did not reduce coverage on spray cards, though it did reduce deposition density. Herbicide solution deposition onto Palmer amaranth, tall waterhemp, giant ragweed, and horseweed ranged from 0.41 to 0.52, 0.55 to 0.87, 0.49 to 0.58, and 0.38 to 0.41 µl cm−2, respectively. Nozzle design and droplet spectrum did not influence the deposition of herbicide solution onto the target weed, as all nozzles were equivalent for all species and site-years. Herbicide efficacy was not influenced by nozzle design, as weed control and plant height reduction were similar for all species. The results of this experiment show that the use of the TTI11004 nozzle for dicamba applications to dicamba-resistant soybean will provide acceptable herbicide deposition and efficacy when applied under the label requirements of weed height and carrier volume.
Field experiments were conducted in Platte County, Missouri, during 2006 and 2007 to evaluate PRE, POST, and PRE followed by (fb) POST herbicide programs for the control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in soybean. All PRE fb POST treatments resulted in at least 66 and 70% control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp was less than 23% with lactofen and acifluorfen in 2006, but at least 64% in 2007. Variability in control likely resulted from differences in trial locations and a population of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)–resistant waterhemp at the Platte County site in 2006 compared with 2007. In both years, glyphosate resulted in less than 23% control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp and provided the least control of all herbicide programs. Programs containing PRE herbicides resulted in waterhemp densities of less than 5 plants/m2, whereas the POST glyphosate treatment resulted in 38 to 70 plants/m2. Waterhemp seed production was reduced at least 78% in all PRE fb POST programs, from 55 to 71% in POST programs containing lactofen and acifluorfen and by only 21% in the POST glyphosate treatment. Soybean yields corresponded to the level of waterhemp control achieved in both years, with the lowest yields resulting from programs that provided poorest waterhemp control. PRE applications of S-metolachlor plus metribuzin provided one of the highest net incomes in both years and resulted in $271 to $340/ha greater net income than the glyphosate-only treatment. Collectively, the results from these experiments illustrate the effectiveness of PRE herbicides for the control of glyphosate-resistant waterhemp in glyphosate-resistant soybean and the inconsistency of PPO-inhibiting herbicides or PPO-inhibiting herbicide combinations for the control of waterhemp populations with multiple resistance to glyphosate and PPO-inhibiting herbicides.
Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the level of glyphosate resistance in common waterhemp populations from Platte County (MO1) and Holt County, Missouri (MO2), and to determine the level and distribution of resistance to glyphosate, acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides, and protoporophyrinogen oxidase (PPO)–inhibiting herbicides across the MO1 site. Results from greenhouse experiments revealed that the MO1 and MO2 waterhemp populations were 19 and 9 times more resistant to glyphosate, respectively, than a susceptible waterhemp population. In field experiments, greater than 54% of waterhemp at the MO1 site survived 1.7 kg glyphosate ae ha−1 (twice the labeled rate) 6 wk after treatment. Tank-mix combinations of ALS- and PPO-inhibiting herbicides with glyphosate also failed to provide complete control of the waterhemp population at the MO1 site. Collection and screening of seed from individual female waterhemp accessions revealed multiple resistance to glyphosate, ALS-, and PPO-inhibiting herbicides across the MO1 site. All 14 waterhemp accessions collected across the MO1 site exhibited greater than 65% survival to 2× rates of glyphosate and thifensulfuron, and these accessions were spread across a 5-km2 (503-ha) area. Four waterhemp accessions collected across a 0.9-km2 (87-ha) area also exhibited 26 to 38% survival to 2× rates of lactofen. The results from these experiments provide evidence and confirmation of the first glyphosate-resistant waterhemp population in the United States and reveal that multiple resistance to glyphosate, ALS-, and PPO-inhibiting herbicides can occur in waterhemp.
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