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All herbicides will move off-target to sensitive crops when not applied correctly. Therefore, low-dose applications of flumioxazin and metribuzin were evaluated in soybean at the unifoliate, V2, and V4 growth stages. Rates evaluated were 12.5%, 25%, and 50% of the labeled use rates of 72 and 316 g ai ha−1 of flumioxazin and metribuzin, respectively. Flumioxazin injury was characterized by necrosis and visible height and width reduction. Injury increased with rate 3 d after treatment (DAT), with unifoliate, V2, and V4 soybean injured 15% to 30%, 18% to 27%, and 5% to 8%, respectively. Unifoliate and V4 soybean were injured more than V4 soybean 3 to 14 DAT, but injury decreased to <5% by 42 DAT. Soybean yields in the flumioxazin study were 92% to 96% of the nontreated, resulting in a yield loss of 196 to 393 kg ha−1 and a revenue loss of 71 to 141 US$ ha−1. Metribuzin injury was primarily chlorosis with necrosis and a visible reduction in soybean height and width. Soybean at the V2 growth stage was injured 14% more than V4 soybean 3 DAT, regardless of metribuzin rate. Injury to V2 and V4 soybean was similar 14 DAT, with injury of 21% to 40% across rates. Soybean injury when treated at the V2 and V4 growth stages was 6% to 29% 42 DAT compared to unifoliate soybean at 0 to 17%. Soybean yields in the metribuzin study yields were 96% to 98% of the nontreated. However, a 2% to 4% reduction equates to a loss of 90 to 180 kg ha−1 and a revenue loss of 32 to 65 US$ ha−1. Unifoliate and V2 soybean are more sensitive to a low dose of flumioxazin POST, and V2 and V4 soybean are more sensitive to a low dose of metribuzin POST. Injury and the impact on soybean growth could potentially cause economic loss for a soybean producer.
Cotton growers commonly use glufosinate-based programs to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. Palmer amaranth must be small (≤7.5 cm) for consistent control by glufosinate, and growers often miss the optimum application timing. XtendFlex™ cotton may provide growers a tool to control larger Palmer amaranth. Glufosinate, dicamba, and glufosinate plus dicamba were compared for Palmer amaranth control in a rescue situation. Herbicides were applied to 16- to 23-cm weeds (POST-1) followed by a second application (POST-2) 12 d later. Glufosinate-ammonium at 590 g ai ha−1 plus dicamba diglycolamine salt at 560 g ae ha−1 POST-1 followed by glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2 was more effective than glufosinate at 880 g ha−1 POST-1 followed by glufosinate at 590 g ha−1 POST-2 or dicamba alone applied twice. Following a directed layby application of glyphosate, diuron, and S-metolachlor 14 d after POST-2, Palmer amaranth was controlled 99% by any system containing dicamba or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-1 followed by dicamba, glufosinate, or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2 compared with 87% to 91% control by glufosinate alone applied twice. Cotton height and number of main stem nodes at layby were reduced in systems with dicamba only POST-1 followed by dicamba or glufosinate plus dicamba POST-2, presumably due to competition from the slowly dying Palmer amaranth with dicamba only POST-1. These treatments also delayed cotton maturity and reduced lint yield compared with systems containing glufosinate plus dicamba at POST-1.
Glufosinate controls glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth, but growers struggle to make timely applications. XtendFlexTM cotton, resistant to dicamba, glufosinate, and glyphosate, may provide growers an option to control larger weeds. Palmer amaranth control and cotton growth, yield, and fiber quality were evaluated in a rescue situation created by delaying the first POST herbicide application. Treatments consisted of two POST applications of dicamba plus glufosinate, separated by 14 d, with the first application timely (0-d delay) or delayed 7, 14, 21, or 28 d. All treatments included a layby application of diuron plus MSMA. Palmer amaranth, 14 d after first POST, was controlled 99, 96, 89, 75, and 73% with 0-, 7-, 14-, 21-, or 28-d delays, respectively. Control increased following the second application, and the weed was controlled at least 94% following layby. Cotton yield decreased linearly as first POST application was delayed, with yield reductions ranging from 8 to 42% with 7- to 28-d delays. Delays in first POST application delayed cotton maturity but did not affect fiber quality.
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