Helicobacter pylori is a cause of stomach cancer and peptic ulcer. For prevention, improving the eradication rate of H. pylori is crucial. However, the association between eradication and lifestyle of infected patients, including alcohol consumption, remains unclear. We explored associations between failed primary eradication therapy and drinking status by sex. This study involved 356 patients who visited a pharmacy with prescriptions for primary H. pylori eradication therapy. We assessed drinking habits using a questionnaire. Data on patients with failed primary eradication were provided by the nearby local clinic. We performed logistic regression analysis to examine the effect of drinking habit and frequency of drinking on failed primary eradication by sex. The odds ratio of primary eradication failure in female patients with a drinking habit was 3.75 (P = 0.001), but that in male patients was not significant. The odds ratio tended to increase in relation to drinking frequency in women. Frequent consumption of alcohol is not only likely to affect eradication, but also has a large impact on the bodies of women, who are more susceptible than men to the effects of alcohol. Thus, women should take greater care in alcohol consumption.