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Previous studies have reported the association between advanced paternal
age at birth and the risk of autistic-spectrum disorder in offspring,
including offspring with intellectual disability.
To test whether an association between advanced paternal age at birth is
found in offspring with high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder (i.e.
offspring without intellectual disability).
A case–control study was conducted in Japan. The participants consisted
of individuals with full-scale IQ ⩾ 70, with a DSM–IV autistic disorder
or related diagnosis. Unrelated healthy volunteers were recruited as
controls. Parental ages were divided into tertiles (i.e. three age
classes). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using
logistic regression analyses, with an adjustment for age, gender and
Eighty-four individuals with autistic-spectrum disorder but without
intellectual disability and 208 healthy controls were enrolled. Increased
paternal, but not maternal, age was associated with an elevated risk of
high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder. A one-level advance in
paternal age class corresponded to a 1.8-fold increase in risk, after
adjustment for covariates.
Advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk for
high-functioning autistic-spectrum disorder.
The ferroelectric phase transition of SrTi18O3 (STO8), where the quantum paraelectricity is reduced by the exchange of oxygen atoms 16O for its isotope 18O, has been studied by both Brillouin scattering and Raman scattering. The Brillouin spectra of the c44 and c66 modes in the paraelectric-tetragonal phase show anomalous behavior in the temperature region several degrees above TC accompanied by a central peak. The characteristic shape of the central peak indicates a coupling mechanism between the acoustic mode and an overdamped soft polar mode. Though the ferroelectric soft A2u mode is Raman inactive in the paraelectric phase, it has been observed in the x(yz)-x geometry indicating a local symmetry breaking above TC. Existence of the ferroelectric micro region in the temperature range far above TC is confirmed by the broad spectral component. The soft mode dynamics is concluded in the phase transition of STO18. The doublet spectrum is observed without any of considerable change by the isotope exchange.
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