The galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri, is the sole member of the subfamily Shinkaiinae. It is abundant and forms dense beds around active hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough. Thousands of filamentous bacteria attached to the plumose setae on the ventral surface of this crab were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Nucleic acids were extracted from the filamentous bacteria, and the phylotypes of 16S rRNA genes were identified from 81 clones. These phylotypes were divided into three groups: Epsilonproteobacteria (74%); Gammaproteobacteria (20%); and Bacteroidetes (6%). Gamma- and major phylotypes of Epsilonproteobacteria were also detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. These Epsilon- and Gammaproteobacteria were closely related to cultured and uncultured bacteria from hydrothermal vent fields including episymbionts of vent-associated invertebrates such as Rimicaris exoculata, Alvinella pompejana, the scaly-foot snail, Kiwa hirsuta etc. The carbon isotopic compositions of the muscle of S. crosnieri and in filamentous bacteria were similar. The muscle of S. crosnieri contained monounsaturated C16 and C18 fatty acids, which are known to be characteristic of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria in H2S-rich marine habitats. Through the video images transmitted by a submersible and a remotely operated vehicle, S. crosnieri was observed to comb out its ventral setae using the third maxilliped and appeared to consume the contents. These evidences suggest the epibiotic association between S. crosnieri and the filamentous bacteria attached to the ventral setae of the crab, but the details of role and function are still unclear at the present study.