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Low sheet resistance (high mobility) with high transmittance in all wavelength is required for front TCO. High haze value is also required for effective light trapping. For this purpose, we have combined F-doped SnO2 (FTO) with high mobility deposited by LPCVD and reactive ion etching (RIE) processed glass substrate. However, two problems have been found. (1) The mobility of FTO on RIE substrate dropped from that on flat glass (75 to 36 cm2/Vs). To avoid this drop, thicker film is needed. (2) To keep high transmittance with thicker film, lower carrier concentration is needed. But the mobility dropped with lower carrier concentration. In order to solve these constrains, we have adopted a stacked structure using thick non-doped layer of 2700 nm and thin F-doped layer of 500 nm. With this novel approach, we have successfully achieved the high mobility (80 cm2/Vs), low carrier concentration (2.2x1019 /cm3) and high haze value (77% at wavelength of 1000 nm) at the same time. This new developed high-haze SnO2 is a new promising TCO for thin-film Si solar cells.
We generalize the notion of totally peripheral 3-manifolds to define homologically peripheral 3-manifolds. The homologically peripheral property survives canonical decompositions of 3-manifolds as well as it defines a sufficiently large class of 3-manifolds containing link exteriors. The aim of this paper is to study finite group actions on a homologically peripheral 3-manifold, which agree on the boundary, up to equivalence relative to the boundary. As an application, we generalize Sakuma's theorems on the uniqueness of symmetries of knots to the case of symmetries of links.
We report new results from subgap absorption and transport measurements on pulse and continuous (cw) light-soaked a-Si:H which include that (1) the mobility-lifetime product of electrons (μeτe) shows the same dependence on defect subgap absorption irrespective of whether the sample was soaked by pulse or continuous lights, but that (2) the dependence of μeτe on defect subgap absorption is not linear. These results are compared with annealing energy distribution of light-induced defects, and discussed in terms of (1) annealing energy (Eann) distribution of light-induced defects (LIDs), and of (2) photo-induced structural change.
A link L in S3 possibly admits an involution of the exterior E(L) with fixed point set a closed surface, which is not extendable to an involution of S3. In this paper, we focus on the case of graph links and show that the genus of the surface provides a lower estimate of the number of link components.
An irreducible graph manifold
contains an essential torus if it is not a special Seifert manifold. Whether
contains a closed essential surface of negative Euler characteristic or not depends on the difference of Seifert fibrations from the two sides of a torus system which splits
into Seifert manifolds. However, it is not easy to characterize geometrically the class of irreducible graph manifolds which contain such surfaces. This article studies this problem in the case of graph link exteriors.
Emotional memory is a special category of memory for events arousing strong emotions. To investigate the effects of emotional involvement on memory retention in individuals with Alzheimer's disease we studied peoples' memories of distressing experiences during a devastating earthquake.
Fifty-one subjects with probable Alzheimer's disease who experienced the Kobe earthquake at home in the greater Kobe area were studied. Memories of the earthquake were assessed 6 and 10 weeks after the disaster in semi-structured interviews, and were compared with memories of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination given after the earthquake.
Forty-four (86.3%) of the subjects remembered the earthquake and 16 (31.4%) of subjects remembered the MRI experience. Factual content of the earthquake was lost in most of the subjects.
Fear reinforces memory retention of an episode in subjects with Alzheimer's disease but does not enhance retention of its context, despite repeated exposure to the information.
A layered perovskite type oxide, K2La2Ti3O10, was prepared by a gel technique using the polymerized complex (PC) method. A single phase K2La2Ti3O10 was obtained by adding twice the potassium required for stoichiometry. The Ni–K2La2Ti3O10 catalyst prepared by the PC method exhibited a higher photocatalytic activity for decomposition of H2O into H2 and O2 than that prepared by a conventional solid state reaction.
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