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Characterizing the whole genetic architecture of drought tolerance (DT) is a persistent challenge for the breeders. Here we developed a half-sib population comprising of 404 lines of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations with M8206 as the joint parent (M8206 × TongShan and ZhengYang × M8206) and tested for its DT under sand culture. The population was sequenced using restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing filtered with minor allele frequency ≥0.01; 55,936 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained and assembled into 6137 SNPLDBs (SNP linkage disequilibrium blocks). The restricted two-stage multi-locus genome-wide association analysis characterized with error and false-positive control identified 40 QTLs with 93 alleles on an average of 34.75% of the phenotypic variance (PV) collectively for relative root length (RRL) and relative shoot length (RSL) that served as potential DT indicators. Among these, eight loci corresponded to previously reported QTLs, whereas 32 loci were therefore novel. The identified QTLs with their corresponding alleles for RRL and RSL were organized into QTL-allele matrices, depicting the comprehensive DT genetic architecture of the three parents/half-sib population. From the matrices, we predicted the possible best/optimal genotype with weighted average value (WAV) 1.553 over two indicators, while for the top 10 single crosses among RILs with 95th percentile WAV was 1.218–1.257, transgressive over the parents (0.693–0.794) yet much less than 1.553. From the detected QTL-allele system, 65 potential candidate genes collectively for both indicators explaining on an average of 24.41% PV were annotated and χ2-tested as a DT candidate gene system involving nine biological processes.
A high-carbohydrate diet could achieve a protein-sparing effect, but it may cause negative impacts on the growth condition of fish due to their poor utilisation ability of carbohydrate. How to reduce the adverse effects caused by a high-carbohydrate diet is important for the development of aquaculture. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether inulin could attenuate the metabolic syndrome caused by a high-carbohydrate diet in fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1·19 (sd 0·01) g) were supplied with 35 % carbohydrate (CON), 45 % carbohydrate (HC) and 45 % carbohydrate + 5 g/kg inulin (HCI) diets for 10 weeks. The results showed that addition of inulin improved the survival rate when fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating that inulin had an immunostimulatory effect. Compared with the HC group, the HCI group had lower lipid accumulation in liver and the gene expression analyses indicated that addition of inulin down-regulated genes related to lipogenesis and up-regulated genes relevant to β-oxidation significantly (P < 0·05). Higher liver glycogen and glucose tolerance were found in the HCI group compared with the HC group (P < 0·05). These results indicated that inulin could alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by a high-carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, addition of inulin to a high-carbohydrate diet changed the intestinal bacterial composition and significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid in fish gut which have the potential to increase pathogen resistance and regulate metabolic characteristics in fish. Collectively, our results demonstrated a possible causal role for the gut microbiome in metabolic improvements induced by inulin in fish.
The construction of halloysite spherical capsules (halloysite aerogels) was reported for the first time in our previous work. The excellent performance of the microcapsule in functional carrying was also found in our further research. In this work, the anti-icing surface was fabricated by using halloysite nanotubes and halloysite spherical microcapsules. The fabrication of the anti-icing coating was investigated, and the ice nucleation behavior of droplet on the coating surface was studied. The modified halloysite nanotubes (F-HNTs) and the modified halloysite microcapsules (F-HAs) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric, and pore size distribution. The results show that the introduction of F-HNTs and F-HAs have successfully formed a micro-nano structure on the coating surface with superhydrophobicity performance. The icing temperature of the coating has decreased 2.3 °C compared with bare glass, and the ice adhesion strength has decreased 82%. According to the ice dynamic mechanics, the ice nucleation rate on the coating is significantly reduced, thus the halloysite microcapsule coating has good icephobic performance.
Eurasian steppes experienced frequent cultural transfers, human migration, and diffusion of techniques during the Bronze Age. The Hami Oasis is one of the most dynamic areas and has attracted multiple cultural flows. It is an important area that connects various routes of the Tianshan Corridor with the Hexi Corridor in western China. The Tianshanbeilu cemetery is the largest Bronze Age cemetery in Hami. Thirty-seven new radiocarbon dates allowed us to establish a new and more accurate chronology for Tianshanbeilu. Our results showed that the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was used from approximately 2022–1802 cal BC and remained in use from 1093–707 cal BC. This indicates that Tianshanbeilu is the earliest and longest-used known cemetery in eastern Xinjiang. By incorporating the typology of artifacts and stratigraphic relationships, the development of the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was divided into four phases. The first phase was from 2011–1672 cal BC, the second phase was from 1660–1408 cal BC, the third phase was from 1385–1256 cal BC, and the fourth phase was from 1214–1029 cal BC.
The effects of resistant starch on glycaemic control are controversial. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of results from nineteen randomised controlled trials (RCT) was performed to illustrate the effects of resistant starch on glycaemic control. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane electronic databases for related publications from inception to 6 April 2020. Key inclusion criteria were: RCT; resistant starch as intervention substances and reporting glucose- and insulin-related endpoints. Exclusion criteria were: using type I resistant starch or a mixture of resistant starch and other functional food ingredients as intervention; using substances other than digestible starch as controls. The effect of resistant starch on fasting plasma glucose was significant (effect size (ES) –0·09 (95 % CI –0·13, −0·04) mmol/l, P = 0·001) compared with digestible starch. Subgroup analyses revealed that the ES was larger when the dosage of resistant starch was more than 28 g/d (ES –0·16 (95 % CI –0·24, –0·08) mmol/l, P < 0·001) or the intervention period was more than 8 weeks (ES –0·12 (95 % CI –0·18, –0·06) mmol/l, P < 0·001). The effect on homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) was significant (ES –0·33 (95 % CI –0·51, –0·14), P = 0·001). However, the effects on other insulin-related endpoints were not significant, including fasting plasma insulin, four endpoints from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response, disposition index and glucose effectiveness) and HOMA-β. The current study indicated moderate effects of resistant starch on improving glycaemic control.
Fullerene dimers have attracted extensive attention due to their unique structures and fascinating properties. Here, fullerene dimer derivatives with four to six carbon atoms in the esters are designed and synthesized. The property differences that caused by the carbon number in the esters of the fullerene dimers are investigated by performing their electrochemical, optical, and photoelectric measurements. As the carbon atom numbers in the esters increase from four to five and six, the absorption intensities increase to 1.6- and 4.4-folds. The intensities of the fluorescence spectra increase to 1.8- and 5.2-folds. Their photocurrent increases to 2- and 7-folds under the irradiation of a 405-nm laser. The LUMO energy levels move downward slightly from −3.89 to −3.90 and −3.92 eV, respectively. Our results indicate that as the carbon number increases, the carbon chain lengths in the ester structures increase, very slight effects produced on the energy levels of the fullerene dimers, but strongly contribute to their chemical activities and thus the photoelectronic efficiencies.
This study examined how language knowledge and item properties (i.e., semantic relatedness and position) influenced Chinese missing logographeme effects. Eighty-four Chinese readers and 53 English readers were asked to search for the Chinese logographeme 口 while reading a Chinese prose passage. The target 口 appeared in five different positions (i.e., left, right, top, bottom, or inside), varying its degree of semantic relatedness to its embedded characters. The generalized linear mixed-effect model revealed a significant interaction between semantic relatedness and position in Chinese, but not in English, readers when visual complexity and frequency were controlled. For Chinese readers, a higher omission rate occurred when 口 appeared in the top and inside positions and exhibited low semantic relatedness with its embedded characters, whereas 口 was omitted more when it was positioned on the right and exhibited high semantic relatedness to its embedded characters. English readers exhibited a different omission pattern: 口 was omitted more when it appeared in the left or right position irrespective of semantic relatedness. In addition, 口 was omitted more in the inside, rather than the bottom, position. These findings suggest that the omission rate of the logographeme is determined by item properties at the sublexical level and the reader’s language knowledge.
A novel ionic liquid/α-ZrP (C16MIM/α-ZrP) lamellar nanocomposite was fabricated via the electrostatic self-assembly deposition technique by using exfoliated α-ZrP nanosheets and guest molecules (1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as building blocks under mild conditions. C16MIM/α-ZrP nanocomposite was characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and synchronous thermal analyzer. The net interlayer spacing of α-ZrP determined by XRD confirmed that the C16MIM cations formed a monolayer arrangement between the α-ZrP nanosheets. The morphology and microstructure of C16MIM/α-ZrP composite were observed using SEM and TEM. The C16MIM/α-ZrP modified glass carbon electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of nitrite in weak base media. The results obtained with differential pulse voltammetry demonstrated that the C16MIM/α-ZrP hybrid detected nitrite linearly in the concentration range from 7.3 μM to 1.25 mM with the detection limit of 1.26 μM (S/N = 3). Additionally, the prepared sensor showed outstanding reproducibility, high stability, and anti-interference capability.
The effect of coffee consumption on functional disability has been scarcely investigated. Thus, this study aimed to examine the association between coffee consumption and functional disability in older American adults. Participants (≥60 years old, n 7704) were from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2016. Coffee consumption was assessed through two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Five domains of functional disability including lower extremity mobility (LEM), general physical activity (GPA), leisure and social activities (LSA), activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were self-reported. Age- and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline analyses were used. Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with LEM, GPA, LSA and IADL disability. Compared with non-drinkers of total coffee, those who consumed ≥2 cups/d reported lower odds of LEM (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·91), GPA (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·47, 0·88), LSA (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·45, 0·83) and IADL (OR 0·59, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·78) disability. The dose–response analyses confirmed these relationships. Intake of ≥2 cups/d caffeinated coffee was also inversely linked to GPA (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·92), LSA (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·93) and IADL (OR 0·57, 95 % CI 0·43, 0·75) disability, whereas the inverse association of 2+ cups/d decaffeinated coffee was only on LEM (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·81) and LSA (OR 0·39, 95 % CI 0·16, 0·94) disability. The present study suggested that coffee consumption was inversely associated with functional disability in older American adults. Those associations of diverse coffee types differed across domains of functional disability.
Several observational studies have investigated the association of insomnia with psychiatric disorders. Such studies yielded mixed results, and whether these associations are causal remains unclear. Thus, we aimed to identify the causal relationships between insomnia and five major psychiatric disorders.
The analysis was implemented with six genome-wide association studies; one for insomnia and five for psychiatric disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). A heterogeneity in dependent instrument (HEIDI) approach was used to remove the pleiotropic instruments, Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger regression was adopted to test the validity of the screened instruments, and bidirectional generalized summary data-based MR was performed to estimate the causal relationships between insomnia and these major psychiatric disorders.
We observed significant causal effects of insomnia on the risk of autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder, with odds ratios of 1.739 (95% confidence interval: 1.217–2.486, p = 0.002) and 1.786 (95% confidence interval: 1.396–2.285, p = 4.02 × 10−6), respectively. There was no convincing evidence of reverse causality for insomnia with these two disorders (p = 0.945 and 0.546, respectively). When insomnia was considered as either the exposure or outcome variable, causal estimates for the remaining three psychiatric disorders were not significant.
Our results suggest a causal role of insomnia in autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. Future disease models should include insomnia as a factor for these two disorders to develop effective interventions. More detailed mechanism studies may also be inspired by this causal inference.
The personalization of products and services has become an inevitable trend in the manufacturing and service industry, but it is very difficult to identify users' personalized requirements accurately. This paper solves this problem by constructing an identifying model for personalized requirement based on user profiling. Firstly, the framework of the proposed model and the process of identifying the user's personalized requirements with this model are introduced, and then an experimental scheme for obtaining users' profiling data is designed. On this basis, an experiment is performed by investigating users' requirements for the computer to obtain the data, and the data are used for the analysis based on the proposed model. The analysis result shows that the model can reveal the difference among heterogeneous users well, find out the implicit requirements of users, and identify the gap between existing products and users' personalized requirements, which provides support to the subsequent improvement of product design.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease characterised by left ventricular asymmetry hypertrophy. However, our knowledge of the genetic background in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cases is limited. Here, we aimed to evaluate pathogenic gene mutations in a family with high-risk hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and analyse the genotype/phenotype relationships in this family.
The proband, her parents, and her niece underwent whole-exome sequencing, and the genotypes of family members were identified using Sanger sequencing. mRNA expression was detected using reverse transcription sequencing. Structural impairments were predicted by homologous modelling. A family survey was conducted for patients with positive results to obtain information on general clinical symptoms, electrocardiography, ambulatory electrocardiography, echocardiography, and 3.0T cardiac magnetic resonance findings. Regular follow-up was performed for up to 6 months.
Five family members, including the proband, carried a cleavage site mutation in the MYBPC3 gene (c.2737+1 (IVS26) G>T), causing exon 26 of the MYBPC3 gene transcript to be skipped and leading to truncation of cardiac myosin-binding protein C. Family survey showed that the earliest onset age was 13 years old, and three people had died suddenly at less than 40 years old. Three pathogenic gene carriers were diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and all showed severe ventricular septal hypertrophy.
The c.2737+1 (IVS26) G>T mutation in the MYBPC3 gene led to exon 26 skipping, thereby affecting the structure and function of cardiac myosin-binding protein C and leading to severe ventricular hypertrophy and sudden death.
We report a systematic study of spatial variations of the probability density function (PDF)
for temperature fluctuations
in turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection along the central axis of two different convection cells. One of the convection cells is a vertical thin disk and the other is an upright cylinder of aspect ratio unity. By changing the distance
away from the bottom conducting plate, we find the functional form of the measured
in both cells evolves continuously with distinct changes in four different flow regions, namely, the thermal boundary layer, mixing zone, turbulent bulk region and cell centre. By assuming temperature fluctuations in different flow regions are all made from two independent sources, namely, a homogeneous (turbulent) background which obeys Gaussian statistics and non-uniform thermal plumes with an exponential distribution, we obtain the analytic expressions of
in four different flow regions, which are found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Our work thus provides a unique theoretical framework with a common set of parameters to quantitatively describe the effect of turbulent background, thermal plumes and their spatio-temporal intermittency on the temperature PDF
The switching between a damped and an undamped Inertial Navigation System (INS) is an important technical method to ensure its long-term accuracy. The stability of switching is of great importance. This paper studies the switching stability problem between a damped and an undamped INS. A model of an inertial navigation switching system is established by introducing switched control. The average dwell time method is used to analyse stability and a sufficient condition of exponential stability is given. The condition is also extended to the switched system containing constant disturbance and the sufficient condition of exponential stability. The effect of introducing switched control for the smooth operation of the system is verified and the accuracy of a long-term INS is improved effectively.
This paper is concerned with the travelling waves for a class of non-local dispersal non-cooperative system, which can model the prey-predator and disease-transmission mechanism. By the Schauder's fixed-point theorem, we first establish the existence of travelling waves connecting the semi-trivial equilibrium to non-trivial leftover concentrations, whose bounds are deduced from a precise analysis. Further, we characterize the minimal wave speed of travelling waves and obtain the non-existence of travelling waves with slow speed. Finally, we apply the general results to an epidemic model with bilinear incidence for its propagation dynamics.
Two wide band gap conjugated polymers, namely PBDT-TT25 and PBDT-TT36, derived from (4,8-bis(4,5-dioctyl-thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(trimethylstannane) with 2,5-dibromothieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT25) or 3,6-dibromothieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT36), have been synthesized by simply altering the linker positions of thieno[3,2-b]thiophene unit. The impact of linker positions on the energy levels, aggregation, active layer morphology, and optical and photovoltaic properties was evaluated systemically. We found that the absorption was greatly broadened, and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level was elevated as the result of the significantly reduced twist angle on the polymer backbone when the linker positions changed from 3,6-isomer to 2,5-isomer. Therefore, the optimal inverted polymer solar cells exhibited a 1.87 times enhancement in power conversion efficiencies (PCE), which was mainly ascribed to the higher short circuit current densities (JSC) and fill factor (FF) of the devices mainly benefited from the widened, stronger absorption, higher hole mobility, and more ordered structure.
Cellulitis is a common infection of the skin and soft tissue. Susceptibility to cellulitis is related to microorganism virulence, the host immunity status and environmental factors. This retrospective study from 2001 to 2013 investigated relationships between the monthly incidence rate of cellulitis and meteorological factors using data from the Taiwanese Health Insurance Dataset and the Taiwanese Central Weather Bureau. Meteorological data included temperature, hours of sunshine, relative humidity, total rainfall and total number of rainy days. In otal, 195 841 patients were diagnosed with cellulitis and the incidence rate was strongly correlated with temperature (γS = 0.84, P < 0.001), total sunshine hours (γS = 0.65, P < 0.001) and total rainfall (γS = 0.53, P < 0.001). The incidence rate of cellulitis increased by 3.47/100 000 cases for every 1° elevation in environmental temperature. Our results may assist clinicians in educating the public of the increased risk of cellulitis during warm seasons and possible predisposing environmental factors for infection.
The effect of SiCp on the aging behavior of the extruded SiCp/AZ91 composite fabricated by stir casting was investigated in detail. The necklace-type distribution of the particles in the cast SiCp/AZ91 composite was destroyed, and the extrusion bands consisting of SiCp and small dynamic recrystallized grains formed aligning along the extrusion direction. Addition of SiCp could accelerate the aging kinetics of the AZ91 matrix because of the overlapped particle plastic zone. The improved particle distribution and refined grains caused by the recrystallization could affect the aging behavior of the SiCp/AZ91 composite. The Mg17A112 discontinuous precipitates preferred to nucleate at the SiC/Mg interfaces and the grain boundaries within the extrusion bands and then expanded into the particle-free region. Moreover, the promoted discontinuous precipitates would suppress the continuous intragranular precipitates with respect to the unreinforced AZ91 alloy.
In this work, the negatively charged [NbMoO6]− nanosheets (NSs) were combined with positively charged [5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrinato cobalt] (CoTMPyP) to fabricate a sandwich-like CoTMPyP/[NbMoO6]− NSs intercalated material by a direct self-assembling process. The results confirmed that CoTMPyP cations formed an inclined monolayer between [NbMoO6]− NSs and the inclined angle was about 68°. The electrochemical properties of CoTMPyP/[NbMoO6]− NSs composite were also investigated by cyclic voltammetry and liner sweep voltammetry, which showed the enhanced electron transferred ability. The CoTMPyP/[NbMoO6]− NSs modified electrode displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction with the reduction peak potential shifting from −0.681 to −0.235 V. And oxygen could be reduced to generate hydrogen peroxide with a two-electron process in neutral electrolytes. Moreover, the reduction peak current was linear relationship with the square root of scan rates, implying that the catalytic reaction depended on oxygen diffusion.